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Victorian Naturalist 


of the 


VOL. 69 
MAY, 1952, TO APRIL, 1953 

, , f Ina M. Watson 

Hon. Editors : i 

I N. A. Wakefield 

The Author of each Article is responsible for 
the facts and opinions recorded 

Brown, Prior, Anderson Pty. Ltd., 430 Little Bourke Street 


Achievements of an Industry, No. 4. 

rbllsrEa acrylic resin is one of the most ver- 
satile and attractive of the new synthetic materials which 
the British chemical industry has yet produced. Since I.C.I. 
chemists discovered it in 1932, this crystal-clear plastic has 
found hundreds of uses as varied as the transparent parts of 
aircraft, electric light fittings, chemical plant, and corrugated 
sheets for roof lighting. "Perspex" is made from acetone, of 
which one method of manufacture is based on molasses, a 
by-product of sugar manufacture. The first step in making it 
is to produce a water-white liquid called methyl methacrylate. 
The next is to polymerise this liquid — that is, to cause its 
molecules to join in long chains. The result is polymethyl- 
methacrylate which is sold under the proprietary name 
"Perspex". Although only half the weight of glass, "Perspex" 
is extremely tough, and its development was a timely achieve- 
ment of the British chemical industry. In 1939 it was adopted 
for the transparent parts of all British fighting aircraft, and 
today new uses are constantly being found for it. 



SCHOOL CHILDREN. Copies of the previous series of 
announcements "Ancestors of an Industry" are now available. 
If you would like a set for use in your School projects, then 
write to: 

IC1ANZ Advertising Section, 
P.O. Box 1911, Melbourne, Victoria 

The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol, 69 — No. 1 MAY 9, 1952 No. 8?.l 


The monthly meeting ot the Club was held at the National 
Herbmium on Monday, April 7, 1952. About ISO members and 
friends attended. 

Apologies were reeeived from the. President, Mr. E; E. Lord, 
and also from the two Vice-Presidents. It was proposed by Miss 
Adams, seconded by Mrs, Cooper, that Mtss Watson preside at 
the meeting. 

AH visitors were welcomed lo the meeting-, especially Mr. Roy 
Deans from England, and Mrs. Hartshorn, wife of Professor 
Hartshorn, from U.S.A. 

A newinemher was welcomed to the Club — Miss N. F. Wagner. 

The subject for the evening was given by Mr. Henderson — 
''With Car and Camera Round Australia" We went with him up 
10 Brisbane, through Queensland to Cairns, and round through 
Darwin, Alice Springs and Adelaide, back home again. The talk 
was illustrated with beautiful colour picture? and happily described 
in a droll way by Mr. Henderson, who kept the audience in it 
simmer of laughter. 

A vote of thanks was passed by Mr. Bryan, seconded by Miss 
Fletcher, and carried with acclamation. 

The Secretary announced that an Extraordinary General Meet- 
ing tfdl take, place on Monday, May 12, 1952, at 7.45 p.m., to 
deal with an application for affiliation by the. Maryborough Field 
Naturalists Club. * 

The Club has been asked to send two delegates to the. Congress 
of A.N./.A.A S-, which meets in Sydney on August 20 to 27 
Dr. Chattaway has agreed to act as one delegate, and members 
we:e asked to submit the name of any other member who would 
also act in this capacity for the Club 

Nominations for office-bearers and Committee members for 
the ensuing year were requested to be forwarded to Council 

The Chairman, 'Mi>s Watson, advised members that Council 
had been very concerned regarding the finances of the Club. Un- 
fortunately advertisements ior the ensuing year m the Notuiptist 
would be fewer than in previous years. Every possible avenue for 
economy in printing the Naturalist had been investigated, hut it 
appeared there was no other way of meeting expenditure in the 
future than by raising subscriptions. Under the powers given it 
by the Constitution, the Council had decided that .subscriptions 
for the next year will be raised to: 

2 Field Naturalists Club Proceedings VT a \^" 

Ordinary Members . . . . £200 

Joint Ordinary Members .. z 10 o 

Country Members , , . . , . 1 10 o 

Joint Country Members .. .. 1 17 6 
Junior Members No alteration 

The Secretary advised that one nomination for the Australian 
Natural History Medallion had been received — that of Mr. J. H. 
WilliSj proposed by Mr. .H. C, E. Stewart, seconded by Mr, Chalk. 


Fl.OWF.RS — Thryptovichc saxientn, Aslrolonw conoslcphioidcs, Lmn- 
bertia formnsa — Mr. J. S. Seaton; Cyclop bonis rufestris_. Mt. Drummer — 
Mr. Hooke. Exampcls of fasciation in Convolvulus ernbrseensj Correa 
rejlexa, garden grown Mr. J. Ros Garnet, 

SHELLS — Brachiopod, Mafjcthmia (lat-csccns Lam. from Western Port 
— Mr. Gabriel. 

ARTEFACTS— Miss Elder. 

MISCELLANEOUS— Photo of Mnrlo Back Beach, Miss Wigau. A 
picture made from scraps and chipping* of opal from Coober Pedv opal 
fields. Miss TCdith Raft. 



Under provisions of clause 24 of the By-laws aa Extraordinary Meeting 
will he held at the National Herbarium on May 12. 1952. at 7.45 p.m., 
to consider an application for affiliation by the Maryborough Field 
Naturalists Club, 


Notice is hereby given that the Annual General Meeting of the 
F.N.C.V. will be" held at the National Herbarium on TUESDAY, June 
10, 1952, at 7.4S p.m. 


The Librarian requests that all books l>c returned by May 31 for 


Word has recently been received that all the area on the southern bank 
of the Glcoclg River has been declared a sanctuary. 

The area on the north bank is still open (mainly because of complaints 
from soldier settlers of the need to clear out kangaroos, which are damaginfr 
their crops) hut it is hoped that in the not far distant future this, too, 
will be declared a sanctuary. 

J*g*] Vichrhui Naliixtol Ptttks^-Jfefm'i AV. .1 S 


(Report No. 5 of the National Parks and National 
Monuments Standing; Committee) 

On Apnl Hi 1950, the Parliamentary State Development 
Committee tabled Els Rcpon on the Alpine Regions ol Victoria — 
Ski-ing mid Tounst Resorts. The enquiry, which culminated in 
this report, caused the committee to make certain recommenda- 
tions affecting the State's nature conservation areas as well as 
its popular tounst resorts, notably the creation of a portfolio of 
Minister of Tourist Development, under whose control would he 
placed all National Parks, alpine regions and other tourist resorts. 
For each of these three divisions of responsibility the Minister 
would be assisted by an Advisory Authority (or "Committee '. as 
a subsequent report termed it). In the case of the Alpine body, 
its members would be drawn from the Ski Club of Victoria, the 
Federation of Victorian Ski Clubs, local alpine reserves com- 
mittees and public servants It was considered that most or all 
of the following departments or instrumentalities should be repre- 
sented : Lands, Forests Commission, Country Roads Board. Stale 
Electricity Commission, Railways, Tourist Resorts Committee, 
and Treasury, Further, it was. considered that the Government 
officials and the general public should be given approximately 
equal representation on the 'Authority". 

That ihe Development Committee was gtadually crystallizing 
its ideas oh the shape of things to come is evident from the 
proposals embodied in its subsequent reports on National Parks; 

An Interim Repp ft On National Parks and Tourist Facilities 
issued on November 9, 1950, indicated the general lines along 
which the specific enquiry into Victoria's National Parks was 
proceeding. The sympathetic attitude of the Committee was 
evident from the statement that "Victorians have never given the 
matter of parks and monuments adequate or proper attention. 
This is in marked contrast to that of other countries" 

The investigation occupied many months and involved extensive, 
travels and tours of inspection by the Committee, and a number 
of public heatings during which a considerable volume of evidence 
was submitted by many organization?, and individual*. (See Vir, 
biat., June, 1951, pp 20-26.) Itr- final report, issued in November, 
1951, contained the findings of die Committee and gave, in some 
detail, the recommendations to the Government as to ways and 
means of controlling and developing the State's National Parks. 

The following excerpts from this lengthy document should serve 
to inform members of the Club and other interested readers to 
what extent the Development Committee's opinions and recom- 
mendations approach those of our own Committee and of the 

4 Victorian National Pat-to— RepeH No. 5 l^.p?*" 

Combined Societies' Standing Committee on National Parks and 
National Monuments, 

Neexi fob Authority. "The weight of evidence is that the 
control of National Parks should be vested in an Authority created 
specially tor the purpose/' "The Committee is of opinion that the 
development of National Parks and alpine regions is interlocked 
so closely wilh Ihe general question of tourist policy that il would 
he in the interests of all three that they be controlled by a single 

Fj nance. The Committee agtees that "financial starvation is 
<irit of the main handicaps under which Committees of Management 
lahour' 1 and. inter alia, "For the purpose of raising funds most 
of them find it necessary to let grazing leases within their parks. 
It need scarcely be emphasized that generally speaking grazing 
leases- and conservation of fauna and flora in a natural state cannot 
both be successful in the one area. None of these abuses (grazing, 
timber extraction and quarrying for road-metal being specified 
as 'abuses') can he removed without some proper statutory pro- 
vision for finance/' 

Planning. ,c Thc scientific development of National Farks calls 
for the creation of a master plan for each reservation based on 
the purpose for which each park was created and nn the nerd 
of the periple who use il."' The Committee considers that an 
immediate survey of each National Park should be made and the 
master plan drawn up for the information and guidance of the 
pi o j ected Au thor i ly . 

Recreation. The plan should include provision for recreational 
facilities in selected parts of those, parks where their inclusion 
•would not detrimentally affect the basic purpose of the area in 

Selection ok Areas. The Committee believes that an urgent 
task of the Authority would be to make a survey of the State lor 
sites suitahte and desirable as National Parks, having in mind the 
needs of all regioiral communities. Areas listed for examination 
include a number submitted by various municipal councils. They 
include' (I) Four hundred acres embracing Ihe summit of the 
Warby Ranges; (2) 516 acre=; of the Beechworth Reserve — an 
area, traversed by the. Gorge "Road, which was gazetted as a 
reserve in 1913; (3) 20 acres of forest on Mt. Mnliagul; (4) 
approximately 2 3 IKX) acres at Bright, adjacent to rhe Tawonga- 
Bright road; (5) Lake Wallace (Edenhope) ; (6) Mt Eccks 
Reserve (Minhamitc) ; (7) Paradise Falls (Oxlcy Shire); (8) 
Traralgon Creek Valley ; (9) a tr^ct of land on theHarry's Creek- 
Road, Violet Town; ( lOj a series uf small areas on the perimeter 
of Bendigo. (1.1) Paddys Ranges, Maryborough; and (12) 
Kmeraid Paik. Appendix B of the report quotes the views of 

*$J \-^(iimii Mcihual Porh—Rrfurt No. S 5 

the Town and Country Planning Association On the desirability 
of including the Baw Baws, Grampians, Lower Glenelg River, 
Central Highlands, Peterborough-Cape Otway Forest., and the 
Barrnah Forest on rhe Murray as areas suitable fur National 

Appendix D quotes, without amendment, the 6& sites long 
recommended as National Monuments by the Club's National 
Parks and National Monuments Committee. Perhaps the most 
imaginative proposal nwje by the Development Committee con- 
cerns the establishment of an alpine national park extaiding over 
the whole of the North Gippsland and north-eastern Alps to the 
New South Wales border. I* was even suggested that the New 
South Wales Government might he approached to extend its 
Kosciusko State Park southwards to link up with the Victorian 
Alpine Park — a scheme mooted some years ago and which is 
known to be viewed favourably by a numhei oi people in our 
sister State. 

Private Enterprise as ah Am to Di:vu.oi-Mi:m. The Com- 
mittee believes that much of the development of ow National 
Farks as tourist attractions could be undertaken I>y private enter- 
prise under the guidance and with the advice of the Authority, 
after the public facilities had been provided for from public funds- 

Touktsis While the tourist value of National Parks is viewed 
as an impoitant feature of their development ( Mt Buffalo and 
its Chalet are quoted as an excellent illustration oi this), it is 
pointed out that one of the primary purposes of these reserves is 
to preserve theru in a natural state as sanctuaries— a purpose that 
must not be relegared to the background. 

Rangers. The view that park rangers should be trained for 
thpir job — "schooled in the elements of natural history and con- 
servation" — is endorsed. Acknowledging that a park ranger should 
be more than an odd-job man. il couunends the. use of. the Fisheries 
and Game Department and the Forests Commission for training 

Grazing and Fires. The report gives due weight to die find- 
ings of the 1946 Royal Commission on Forest Fires and Gracing 
and to the evidence of a number ui witnesses. The Committee 
failed co understand llie claim that "grazing leases safeguard the 
parks against unauthorized graziers," Rather naively it adds: "If 
grazing weni prohibited, any stock found in a National h'ark 
cuuld be impounded and proceedings taken against the owner/' 
"'(..'razing of domestic- stock fe completely prohibited in many 
National Parks throughout the world, including those in Switzer- 
land ami Tasmania." 

IwDrvrDUAL National Parks. Several points of interest arf*e 
in the section dealing with individual reserves. The Committee 

6 Victorian Naliaml Parks— Report No. 5 ( V vJj.^| L 

recommends the extension of Wypt-tfeld by including an area of 
up to three square miles to the north Lowards Fatchewollrxk, where 
mallec grows more freely and where the Lowau ts kitonn to breed. 

In evidence il was urged thai Mallacoota National Park be 
extended tu include the Howe Ranges, and in this the Committee 
agrees. Extensions to both the Tarra Valley and Bulga National 
Parks arc also recommended After slating the various flagrant 
abuses to which Tower Hill has long been subject, the report 
says: "Action should lie taken to restore this area as nearly as pos- 
sible to its original condition." Buchau Caves, Wernbce Gorge, 
Churchill Park, the two Phillip Island Koala Sanctuaries and 
the Sir Colin Mackenzie Sanctuary at Badger Creek arc each 
briefly discussed and recommended for reservation in perpetuity 
as National Parks. Referring to the Badger Creek Sanctuary, it 
is stated that action is being taken to transfer the 351-acrc Coian- 
derrk reserve to the Committee of Management — a transfer that 
has Jong been advocated by naturalists, lit another section of the 
report the Committee points our the desirability of using (he 
Badger Creek Sanctuary as a breeding place f«w the native fauna 
required for restocking the several National Parks. 

Some space is devoted to areas such as the Dandcnong Ranges 
(concerning which are recommended several measures calculated 
to stop the progressive despoliation of the scenic features of these 
ranges) and the Central Highlands. The latter, che Committee 
believes, would provide an admirably situated and highly desirable 
National Park., embracing such important features as Mt. Franklin, 
the Daylesford-Hepburn mineral springs, and the several water- 
falls oi the LoUdon River and Sailors Creek. 

The foregoing arc all matters which the Development Commit- 
tee believes should be examined by the National Parks Authority 
when it is established. In the concluding section of us report the 
Committee deals with matters which can be solved only by 
legislation — pre-eminent among them being, of course, the actual 
creation of a National Parks Authority, 

1950, a deputation to the Premier made certain requests (see 
Vk. Nal._, Fen. 1951, pp. 193-194) and the following are, in 
essence, the recommendations of die State Development Com- 
mittee which arose out of these requests. Having satisfied itself 
thai Victoria's National Parks and National Monuments have 
been too long neglected ; that the present system of control by 
delegated committee* was, in the mam, unsatisfactory; that there 
was need of a constituted Authority to advise ami co-ordinate the 
work of these committees ; and that the present system, under the 
guidance of a Government department, could not be made to 
operate successfully, it recommended : 

tlVL] Victorian ffntwwl Pnrlss — Report No I 7 

1. That the reservation in perpetuity and the control and man- 
agement of National Parks and National Monuments in 
Victoria be provided for by legislation. 

2. Thai a National Fark and Tourist Authority be created 
under the responsibility of the Minister of Tourist Develop- 
ment, snch Authority to consist of :< full-time Director 
(who, in the -absence of the Minister, shall be chairman), 
the Secretaries for Lands, Public Works and Health, the 
Diiector of Finance, the Chairman of the Forests Commis- 
sion, and the Manager of the .Government Tourist Bureau. 
(Five of those recommended are members of the present 
Tourists Resorts Committee.) 

3. That the functions of the Authority, in respect nf National 
Parks, shall include the framing and carrying out of poJicy 
or the co-ordination of activities, the allocation of funds, and. 
such other functions as shall he .set oui in the proposed 

4. That a National Tark Advisory Committee he created to 
advise the Authority on matters relating to National Parks, 
This committee should include a representative of each of 
a number of Government departments and instrumentalities- 
(Fisheries and Game Department, State Rivers and Water 
Supply Commission, State Electricity Commission, Victorian 
Railways Commissioners, Country Roads Hoard, Soil Con- 
servation Authority and Police Department), and an equal 
proportion of members of the general public drawn from the 
Combined Societies' Standing Committee on National Park* 
and National Mouuments and from the various organizations 
and interested individuals. 

(Note: The Advisory Committee could thus number at 
least fifteen individuals.) 

It was recommended that the Director of the Authority 
be ex officio Chairman of each Advisory Committee, which 
shall report annually to the Authority. 

5. That local park committees he retained as a small panel. 
one fourth of its members consisting of representatives nf 
the appropriate municipality, one fourth representing Gov- 
ernment bodies, and one half drawn from interested citizens. 
Their appointment should be for five years and renewable. 
They should be obliged to undertake annual inspections. 
The functions of the local committees should be defined and 
should include the supervision, of llie area nndcr their 
jurisdiction, the making of recommendations fur works, and 
the payment of staff. Each committee should report at least 
annually lo the Authority. 

A recommendation of some interest is tT-uat absence without 
reasonable excuse from the annua! rour of inspection should 
be regarded as sufficient reason for termination of » member's 

6. That adequate animal appropriation be made for develop- 
mental and continuous maintenance work at parks, ami thai 
the appropriation be increased in subsequent years to enable 
approved plans to be carried out. 

Several further recommendations were made, dealing with 
access and use by the public, publicity, acquisition and reversion 
of private- property, fire protection, destruction of vermin and 
i>a.\ioiib weeds, and soil erosion ; that suitable reserves be developed 
as camping areas for school children ; and finally that all National 
Parks be declared sanctuaries for both flora and fauna. 


On the whole, the report is a satisfactory document and its 
recommendations are generally acceptable to those interested m 
the welfare of our National Parks apd National Monuments. 
That they, in some measure, depart from the broad pattern nf 
reform outlined by the National Parks and National Monuments. 
Committee is explained by the necessity for covering' the wider 
concept which links tourist facilities and tourist traffic with this 
type of reserve. The inclusion of public servants at all levels of 
National Park administration has something to commend it. It 
should give some assurance that decisions will be made aurl 
recommendations put into effect with due icfercnce to the rights 
and requirements of the various .sections of the community who 
may be affected in one way or another by National Park policy. 
If al*o offers some; prospect of a co-ordination of effort being 

.Finance has been, and it seems always will be, a barrier to 
perfection of our National Park administration, but if the projected 
legislation makes reasonable provision the Authority will certainly 
not suffer the major handicap which continually fmst rated the 
.9everal Committees of Management, the Tourists. Resorts Com- 
mittee and the Lands Department in their efforts to improve the 
prospects of this State's reserves. 

At the present juncture it is net possible to forecast the form 
the legislation will take. It is, however, understood that the 
Minister for Lands and for State Development (Sir Arthur Lind) 
has appointed a committee of officers, of. the Lands Department to 
■ Iraft the State Development Committee's recommendations info a 
legislative measure which, it is hoped, will be. brought down by 
the GuvernimMit early this year 

— J. Ti Garnet, 

lion Secretary, Nat. Parks and \ar. Monuments Committee, 

May 1 

1952 J 

R. IX Lee, Moss Ffryobaiiramui rohbinsii 


By K. I). Lee 

It was a remark by Mr. J. H. Willis concerning tlu' tack of locality 
records for Victorian mosses that led to the re-discovery of a very interest- 
ing species, Bryolwrlnunia rol'biiisii, which had only been found once 

Early in September last, with a week's holiday at Logan, it wa> decided 
to see what could be collected there. Logan, some 140 miles north-west 
of Melbourne and about 15 miles from St. Arnaud. was. and generally 
still is, one of the unknown districts as far as the moss flora is concerned. 

In all, 19 different species were found — not a very impressive number, 
but while Mr. Willis was looking them over for identification, his attention 
was attracted by one solitary plant of unusual turm. a tiny moss with 
white fructification quite unlike any other. Although he felt certain of 

Plant of Rryobarlrtuiiitf, showing large pointed epigonium and included 
capsule on a deeply pigmented seta. (N'ote air bubble in epigonium.) 
Photomicrograph by R. D. Lee. 


R. D. Lkk, Mass PrynthfirtraniM ritbhinsii 

Vict. Nat. 
. Vol. 69 

its identity, in order to make sure beyond all doubt the specimen was sent 
to Mr. G. O. K. Sainsbury of Wairoa, N'tw Zealand, who verified the 

The aggravating part was that, being more or less hidden among other 
specimens found on the ground and so small that a lens was needed to 
see it, wc didn't know to within half a mile just where it came from. 
Fortunately we had the chance of visiting the locality again for a week-end 
in November, and a good look-out was kept for more specimens, Mr. Willis 
had supplied a clear description of all its parts, so we had a reasonable 
idea of what to look for — all we had to do was to find it. Simple! 
Nevertheless, hope was beginning to fade, when just before it was time 
to give up for the return trip, we came across a patch of tiny plants we 

Two kinds of leaves in Bryuliartrnmiu. 

felt sure were what we were looking for; they grew on a flat stretch of 
.ground that would be very damp and waterlogged in winter. We were 
extremely lucky in finding this moss again, jarticularly as by November 
the ground in those parts had dried out and become very dusty. Such 

JJ,"*] K. V. LT:k, Mots ISrvobnrlramia robbinsii 11 

ttllltutt cpuemernls. ift) more than 3 mm, ftftflj; are finite liable to he 
dispersed by the wind, even Though growing anions st grass. It ivot'lcl be 
interesting to know whether the type of ground there is similar ta that in 
which the original find was made. 

I?rVol'(irtr«>»ia rotiWhfH came first from Castlemam* in IV41 by Mr. 
F. Robhms an eminent and well-known Victorian botanist: hut U|i to 
September, 1951 , it had eluded all other searching',, The fruiting palta 
differ so much from those of all other known mosses that not only was 
ffry&barirami* unsuited for inclusion in any existing genus, Ivjt a new 
family (die Bryvbnrlrpt'iioft'pr) had to be created lot it. Under a micro- 
scope, the internal structure of the capsole ran plainly be seen- si round 
cluster of mange snores terminatiiiff a short red sets, which is very brittle, 
and the whole completely covered by a transparent cpigonium oi falsi 
ralyptra. Evidently the epigor.itim falls away with ihe capsule inside it, 
when the spores art mature, allowing; them to disperse from below. How- 
ever, it wooJd be necessary to collect specimens of this moss at other season* 
of the year to observe lull details of its development. 

The normal leaves, almost spoon-shu',N:d and each with a btronj* nerve- 
♦ vanishing below), are easily distinguished from the longer, narrow, taper- 
ing .perkiiaeual which surround the capsule. 

Let us hope Ihjll other discoveries of this tiny species may be found to 
further the general desire for knowledge coneernms it- If you come across 
a white, pointed, hclljar-like fruiting body (to, do so one must discard all 
tSme of dignity and search on hands and knees as Wt didl, think of 
Bryobar»iwta rubbinsii. You may have (omul something worthwhile. 


General Excursions: 

Saturday, May if) — £t. Aifians. four-mile walk Subject Mallec Flo* 
Leader: Mr. K. Atkins. 12.55 p.m. St. Albans (tain, Flinders Street 

Saturday, May 24 — You Yangs. Bus excursion Subjects: Bitds and 
Fuoilypts. Leader: Mr. E. Hanks. Bus leaves Batman Avenue. 8.30 
(t.m. Bring; one meal and a snack, Booking*. U/-. with Mr. K_ Atkins, 
Bulanic Gardens. Scirtb Yarra, S.E.I. 

Saiurday, May 31 — Emerald. Leader's: Botany 'iroup. 9.18 a.m. Fcrntree 
Gully train. Flinders Street. Bus to LmeraM. Bring one tripal. 

Preliminary Notice; 

J wo Museum lectures have been ananned; 

Saturday, June 14 — Anthropology. Lecturer' Mr T>, J, Tngby, Ethnologist, 
Subjects: Ceremonial and burial trees, widows' caps, cylindro-rontcal 
stones and stone implements of the central and western Ne.w South 
Wales :d>oriK'.ne.s_ Members meet 2 30 pin,, Russell Street entrance. 

Saturday, July 20. — Entomology. Lectutir Mr A "M. Burns, Rnlninolosfist 
Subject: Alpine Insects. Members me-et 2.30 p ui., Russxll Street 

Special Notice; 

Tll€ Mt Buffalo Watiuu*J Park Cotrcniiltee ta» granted lo the Club 
hire of the Horn Hm ftoin Friday, December 26, 1952, to Saturday, 
January' >L 1953. Full details will be published when finalized. 

Group Fixtures; 

Monday. May 26— Botany Discussion Crottp. Royal Society's Hall, 8 pin. 

Tuesday, June 2— Geology Discussion Group Royal Society's Hall, 8 |im. 

NOTC — Unt.l iiirrher notice, children under IS half (are. 

— Kenneth Atkins, 

Excursion Secretary. 


Pots of gold ot the foot of the roinbow really belong 

to the world of make-believe, but here you see a very 

good substitute. 

All you need to do is to open an account with the 
State Savings Bank of Victoria, and deposit something 
every week. Thot "every week" is important, it's the 
regularity that counts, ar\d that rapidly builds the 
balance of your account with a speed that will 
surprise you. 


*• It Pays to Save 


The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol. 69 — No. 2 JUNE 9, 1952 No. 822 


Under the provision of clause 24 of the By-laws an Extra- 
ordinary Meeting was held before the General Meeting at the 
National Herbarium on May 12, 1952, to consider an application 
for affiliation by the Maryborough Field Naturalists Club. 

Dr. M, Chattaway, Vice-President, took the Chair. The Secre- 
tary reported that the Annual Report, Statement ui Finance, 
Annual Subscription List and List of Offices of the Maryborough 
F.lS'.C had been examined and found in order. 

The following motion was moved by Mr. F. Lewis, secumltd) 
by Miss Adam*, and carried by members: 

"That the Maryborough Field Naturalists Club be 
affiliated with the Field Naturalists Club of Victoria Inc.*" 

This meeting then closed- 


The monthly meeting of the Club followed; about 120 mem- 
bers and friends attended. 

The following were elected and welcomed as. Ordinary Mem- 
ber*: Mrs. C McQueen, Misses E. V Reed, Isabella D. and 
Marion J. Phillips. Messrs. R. W. Nicholas and Edward Baxter, 
and as a Junior Member, Master R. |. McQueen. A nomination 
for membership was received on lie.ha.lf of Mr. Eric John Rush, 
of 31 Hornby St., Beaumaris, STO (Mr. F. Lcwis-^Mr. Tarltnn 

THp speaker for the evening was Mr. Richard C. Secgar, ;i 
member of the Club who has recently spent four and a half 
months, along the coast of Arnhem Land. Mr. Scegar illustrate*.! 
his talk with beautiful slides, and it was gratifying to learn of 
ibe excellent care being taken of the half caste children of 
Northern Australia. 

Dr Chattaway read a letter received from Mr. J. H. Willi's 
stating he did not wish to accept nomination tor the Natwai 
Hifctory Medallion. Members were requested to forward further 
nominations to the Secretary before May 27, 1952. 

Dr Chattaway advised that until further notice children under 
IS years of age will be charged half fare on excursions held hv 

Owing to Mr. Lord's recent illness, Dr. Chattaway said ttar 
Council did not propose to ask for a presidential address for 
the Annual General Meeting on June 10, 1952 After the 
business meeting has been held, members will be 'invited to join 
ia a conversazione, discussion of exhibits and nature notes 

Members were .'.wkcd to bring as many specimens as possible aivi 
<ee Lliiil an explanatory uulc was displayed with litem. 

The Chairman announced that a cheque for £25, being a 
hecjti^si from the K.state of the late J. VV, del., Forth, had been 
received, and that if was being used to help purchase. :i good 
srreen tor showing colour pictures. 

.Mr. asked tneinhers who liave purchased copies of 
.-I C<:ii<:ii< of l''irtorinu Plants not containing maps to <ipi<ly for 
same as soon as convenient, 

The Chairman said that a request tor specimens of reptiles 
{'alive or dead) has been received from J no. McLoughhn, nf 
Cairns, who is billing to exchange. 

Air. Gabriel spoke briefly of fits exhibit Roadnight's Volute 
which was described bv Professor McCov in 1881. These, shells, 
among the most beautiful and rarest in Australia, were first 
obtained by Baron von Muellei. 

Mr. Seegar exhibited a pipe used by native men, and one- • 
fashioned from the shoii ihick rlau of a lobster used bv 1he 
women, beautiful mats woven from pampas, and coloured with 
dye obtained from irtangioves, and brooches made from shells 
and cleverly tinted bv the girls at the Mi's.MO-n Stations. 

Miss Barbara Nei'sen vsaid the interest in specimens of 
ChiidHOiiclnt iitmiitgi lies in theii habitat. The species itself is 
not pari icularly uncommon, being recoided troiu South Australia 
and Victoiin, and is usually found in the crevices of rocks and 
hollow stones However, the specimens exhibited were found 
bvutg in masses of the worm shell Gokolaria ctts.UpUi.ui 
(Lamarck). This is the only record of a pclccypud living in 
a.-&riciaLion with the Cah'olarin in Victoiia. 

Mr. A. H. Scott said his exhibit ot Lignite Brown Coal from 
Maddingley No, 2 mine. Bacchus Marsh, was found HO feet 
below surface in the Parwau valley, Specimen shows natural 
inarcasitc running thvougb li«naiised fossil wood. Marcasilc is 
whne pyrites, dtsiilphtde of iron: it is used W the gem trade as 
a brilliant, The meeting concluded at 9.35 pnv 


ROTAXY — Tiny Grccnhoorl orclurl (PlrroMylis fnrmjfmn).— lS.r. 
Haa-o Bnnkst.t toll'ma — Mr D. Lewis. Crucifiv orchid (Queensland) — 
Mrs O'Mar.i Cm'illra banksil Forsttni). — Mr. Savant, Musi 
raVcn from Mctculf (Kynctoii). — .Vlr. Miller, Tree-tomato (Lyplroiiuntthfl 
bctnrca). totiagv. and fruit. "J repeal America.— Miss Bffrtfl Kaff. Plains 
from the Basalt Plains.— M». Iv. Atkins, Illustrations of |>lioros of Mr. 
.Vicliolls' "Orchids of Australia". — Mr. WafccficM, 

SHRI.I.S. — Plcr.ixfiiift rntitiiiiyliltir McCoy "Roadtright's Volute". B.'iia 
Strait and South Australia- -C. J. Gabriel. 

FLXGl. — Ply Agaric < Am/nt'tr wiistwrin) (rVffl Mac'don. — Mis-. 1 


Geology: Grafiiir? bom Ciain'e Island (S.A.) — Mrs O'Mara 5|"<i- 
pieus oi volcanic bombs irom Mi, Pomdou Scorch Yuatrs. — Mr Miller. 
Liymte Irom Pacclius Mafill— Mr, A. B Scnjfc 

J : '.i"i ] i H Wil.ii:-. > , r /i.p,j„ M,>.ui:\— Wirw-nir.- ' 15 


Uy |, H. Wii.i. is, National Herbarium of Victuria 

Curtain ginujis of Mnsii in Victoria have been vcvv unsaid 
i.H.ivi'ily investigated, mid this papo ft tlic first M a series 01 
re>"isioiial studies aimed ai bringing wine order into the taxonomii 
tangle si*U chaotic state of nomenclature at present affecting Aus- 
tralian literature. VII pronouncements m>on identity 
and distribution arc til her the icmiII of the writer's personal 
research or that of sound critical experts abroad with whom he 
ha* communicated, due acknowledgements being made in the texl. 

Pallid s|viii«\' bog-mosses belong to the primitive oi"<l"«" 
Sphtttjnairs, consisting of a single family and single genus 
Spiiognuvi which is represented throughout the world m coo? 
inoist climates- The 1 ! ate ihe mi f- and peat-formers of Ireland 
an<I olhe» vast tracts m the tioiihem hemisphere. Thoiip.1i 
nowhere so conspicuous t>s in boreal regions. SplifiQwim specie^ 
are to he found in scattered localities through southern and 
wesle.111 Victoria, causing die Dividing Kange into alpine counli'v 
of the north-east. Onl\ in the higher alps do llicv cover shallov, 
morasses of uuy sixc lowland occurrences bemg usuallv quite 
.Mnall and isolated. 

Flams with sporocai'ps are estreincly rare here, and I ant aware 
oi ciuly two undoubted Victorian collections that shoss auv capsules. 
YVf,: $ h:iv\r<>huu irom Ml. Buffalo (F. Mueller. March 1853) and 
,y, s/ih.ti'niiuliiiii, frinti Wauilah Bav ( l->r. Isabel Cnokiirn. cm. 
1.930) : a good fruiting specimen of S Idonoliirn in Melbourne 
Hei barium Irom "sources of the Hume River, 4U<Xi It.'" {tefl. 
F, Mueller. Jan 1vv4) m;tv have come from the Victorian >iuV 
<>[ die Murwn 

Fight specific epithets have been appbe<l to Victorian species, 
hut only l«o of these arc still of legitimate application, and the 
total number of species puibahly does not exceed five. So muddled 
v>eve the literary references to om .sphagna, and unreliable the 
names appearing on packets of specimens in th« MellKnuna 
Herbarium, that it was virtually impossible to name collections 
with anv tlegiee <>f certainly". 

r-nrtunatelr ffti Victoria. C. Warnstorf. who had been respon- 
sible for most of the confusion attaching to nomenclature, at 
Australian Splwtfiuwcir, was not able to examine much material 
fiom this State — his splitting up of species in the Sabsraaidii 
group has been wittily de.scrilicd by Dr A. Le !}oy Andrews 
os "one of the seven wonders of the world"! With a view to 
resolving these doubts concerning local species of Sf'f'Of/iiuui, 
I recently forwarded to Dr. Andrews (Ithaca, New stinM \7 
collections from representative stations throughout the range of 

16 J. H Wilms. Fi,-t,ino» Mews— Sphnuiw«.r [^yjJiJj 6 

the genus in Victoria, including every noticeable variation in 
growth farm. Dr. Andrews very kindly examined and identified 
this materia), and his report (Quoted later ) is an invaluable con- 
tribution to our knowledge of the Victorian moss flora. 


literary references to boy-mosses in Victoria are astonishingly 
meagre (as with most other groups of the State's Mittci). Baron 
yon Mueller was the first to collect am Sphagnum in the colony. 
His fruiting specimens of S. Icionottmi CM. (in Melbourne 
Herbarium) are accompanied by the following handwritten label: 

"in vathbns 'iltio-riOus wn(>rosissiitns n<l'cstrihtts imy non 
PtofvwIfOtibrtS hinndntis !/r<niiint:u\ Imclii.t Snffhh Roncie. 

The determination "S. cyvtbijo/ioides CM. " is made in the 
handwriting of E. Hantpe, who recorded this first specie* for 
Victoria during the same year (Liiuueo 26 : 489. 1853). Doubt- 
less this collection was also the basis of the only Sphagnum 
recorded in Mueller's Second General Report to Parliament 
(Oct. 1854, p, 17), but the name appears as "5". cymbopbyllvvi" 
F. Muell. — a nomen nudum, Therefore invalid. 

W. Mitten in "Australian Mosses" (Pror, Rnyvt Sot. Viet. 
19 ; 4-96, 1883) lists only two species for Victoria, viz. 
S. cyutbophytliHuF- Muell from "Australian Alps" (F. Mueller) 
and .5*. cyifilnfolitin) Ehrh. from "Cippsland" (also collected by 

Twenty years later W. W. Watts and T, Whitelegge in "Census 
Muscorum Australieiistum" (Proc. Lniv. Soc. A' S.1V.. 1902 
Supplement) list six Victorian specie*, of SfhiUjnniu as follows: 

S. onlorclicmii Mitt.— (Miss Campbell, without locality). 
• S. n"ii/"7c/m<»- F.hih — Gippstaml (F. Mt<elier ) : A«Slv«li»o A!)>» 

a &}r»mr>, 

.?. eyi'thorliyllum I- Muell., hawi'ii mifhini. — (Yippslaiid. Mt Aber- 
deen (i.e. The Horn, Mt. Buffalo) and Victorian Ranges («<!! 
collected by Mueller). 

S. latironw, CM., nmn. herb.— Blacks' Spur (Miss Campbell). 

S. siibstcuudmii Nees. 

var. viocrophylhmi CM. — Blocks Spur (Miss G&iUjJbdlr). 

S. millhmiit CM,, j nnincn nndiun — Mt. William Creek (D. 

StftHviu, W5). 

In 1912 Rev. W, W, Walts wrote, again on ' 'The Sphagna of 
Australia and Tasmania" (Proc. Limi. Soc. .XS.H'. 37 : pp. 383- 
389) and his Victorian list now differs greatly from the one of ten 
years previously — as a result of "Dr C WarnstorFs exhaustive 
monograph (1911) which has, for the first time, made it possible 
to issue a satisfactory summary of the Sphagna of Australia and 
Tasmania .,•... — a striking tribute to the author's uureniitiinrf 


J. H. VtifMtm Mvi\e,<—Spltti!i>wce<f IT 

industrv and patience in research." One doesn't Question Wam- 
storf's industry, Iwt eannnt resist the thought that it could hace- 
been turned to better account tu some other direction, 

Five Sphflijiimit- specie* appear tar Victoria on this 1912' 
Census. S, fatkoma and S\ su-Kmmii are repeated from I902 r 
5\ cywhij/h'ioidirs C M replacp* the former r>;jme V. ryiitbofrt: yllnm 
and 5". jubhirolor Hpe. is apparently meant to replace >?. r.y»rbi- 
foJkt-m (although Watts does not say so) ; 5". wiiarctkimi and; 
S. subsecitiidmn are now dropped vsithotit a word of explanation — 
albeit these two species really do occur here — while a new record 
is introduced, viz. S. eomosunt C.M.. nfmt*, herb., front ■ Berwick 
(leg. Robinson). This later treatment did nothing to elucidate 
die position and only added to the prevailing confusion Small 
wonder that Australian botanists since IhftB have not attempted 
to give names to the sphagna they have found. 

From my recent communications with Dr. A. L* Roy Andrews. 
it is obvious that we have mily f«'o species of Sphagnum- which 
are at all common in Victoria. he would cull S, hio'uoU<m r 
the southern analogue of >$'. patnsrrc L (svn. .S\ ivwbifoHinn 
Khrh.), ar.d S. snh.w.awditm. S. LEIONOTUM CM. 'is frequent 
in alpine bog.', (as on the r!aw Bavvs. Mr Buffalo. Mt. Speculation. 
Mt. Hotbanij the Bogong and Dargo High Plains mid sources of 
the Murray), but descends to lower altitudes along the Delegete 
River near Bcndock, at Gildei oy , Beenak. the Blacks' Spin-, Otways. 
and Victoria Ranges in the Grampians. S. SUBSECUNDlJM 
Nccs (syn. S. novo-sekwdicum Mitt.) is more widespread and 
variable, nccurriiktj along the swampy maigins of lowland streams- 
and in small hillside soaks— often restricted tu a lew square fee'.. 
I have examined specimens from the following (west to east) 
localities in Victoria: Gallows Creek in Lawyer Gleiielg National 
Fmcst. Gorac West, Mt. Clay N.E. of Fouland. Mt. William 
Creek. Yeodenc on the Upper Barwon, Warrandyte, near th* 
Dandenongs, Healesville, Klaeks.' Spur. IS miles E of Broaiiford, 
Cathedral Range, Upper Latrobe River, Arthurs Seat (on Main 
Ck.), Poster, Waratah Bay. Muddy Creek and Nowa Nowa. It 
ascends to 3000 ft. on Mt. Btiangor neat Beaufort, and reaches 
into the alps at Lake Mountain and On the Baw Baws where it 
mingles with the more typically alpine 5", hwiK'tniii. 

Two other species. >S\ (mturiticum Milt and S, (ahatnhtm 
Besch... arc strikingly different and iNUCtt moi^ localized. Each 
of these is known only from two definite Victorian localities, viz. 
along the Upper Latrobe River at. Niayook West (bodi collected 
by the. writer in December, 192'?), while the former grows also 
along the Upper Barvvim River, near Forri st in the Otways. 
(H. N. Marrmer. Nov. 195) J . and the latter on the S.E, slope 
of Mt. Clay near Fortlaud (Chrf.. Bcauylehole. Feb. 1950 j. It is 
Ottly to be expected tliat iuiinci collecting will extend the range 


18 .I . H., /•'irMn'mi ,V «>.<.-.«— Spluuninrac j V v,!tjto' 

•01 both species. These, four sphagna are also :he principal ones 
lo be found in Kcw Zealand, where S falr<rtulnui has a long' 
involved synonymy — some eisjiir "species" of fhe Citspidata gi'onj). 
Dr. ArjtlrWS identifies with Hie l-Sornean # h?cro"ii Hpe. some 
specimens which I obtained ar ;: source of the Varna near Mi 
Horsfntl, hut furfher information is needed lo define its constant 
difference from the very similar and locally abundant S. iciondiwu; 
S l>:'c<'ni-t< would seem to he rjisricgnisbnble by its less porose 
leaves and less fibrillose cortical branch cells. It is a remarkahj" that all four of ihe Victorian species may be collected iit the 
I strobe— Little . Yarra Divide near Powelllown — surely the richest 
.centre o! S'jrlitrfltTfifti development m the State. 


1. Lateral branches long-iaperiii(j. almosr flasclhform : leaver 

narrow-lanceolate to linear, finely acuminate, flattened ant' 

conspicuously undulate V. fnlrtilu!iii:t 

Lateral brandies not long-tapering, often sliurt: leaves 
rotund to broad-lanceolate, very concave, not or hardly 
undulate ,. , . ., .. , T . v 2 

2. Jii-auches appearing sqcarrfjse from thn short, stiff. reRularfy 

spreading leaves which contract suddenly above (by inrol!ni£. 
margiiis) to .form an almost indurated ape.\- • .. S. nutardicuin 
Branches not sr.ifarrose ; leaves mostly apprcssed and ctoselv 
imbricate, with non-indunncd apices .. . t .. . ,! 

A "Massive plants, becoruius; wlioily white when dry; leaves ve.ry 

cbnise, not or only obscurely toothed at the tips . . J*, Inoiio ,, nn 

(also X, hfttttfiti 
Richer slender plants, often of i'. sreen or pale yol.'ovyish cast 
when dry-, leaves acute, conspicuously toothed at the 
extreme ti|>s .?. siihscritutjinii 


At S^ntti i isil: am i - ecc-iu : y, watering; the garden one ) - ot r.iorriiiiE about 
& a. m . in a dry, sandy corner wr.s a shallow basin-shaped depression, 
e.-dcntlv ihljj by a rat. Xoticim; the movement of a sinall white: object at 
the side of the 'basin'' I investigated and discovered dozens oi maggots 
about ijiii. Iocs t'cehh '.vngglmj- juid ftcing overrun by small brown snts 
(■Argentine: aut..). The little creatures were busily engaged pppcarhi ; 
jr.icl disappearing thiouc'h sural] holes in the sides oi the "basin". Anxiwv 
lo cispose oi both pejts. I poured'hocou* water into the depression, Icaviir; 
corpses of the maggots strewn around the bole. Three hours later [juist 
0' the bad disappeared and a round bote at the bottom silo -..ei 
nuts coming and trtyfcfg dispusiu;; ol I'le leiiiaimlcr. A lew ants- wari'1e r *■; 
al'.ouf were the Oftfc signs oi life nett day. 



Rv Kwi F Lr.-.icioviu (PiVllnnfl) 1 

In f-'.V ;Vu/., Jima, IV49. |> -10 >ip|icaii:d y nowe Aiuntunciity 9 rrov 
.•.auciwiry on D4l1$M C..vk. '.i.-ji TnckluH't. tA'ic.j Me.i.lx-; ,;f ilf 
Portland F A" C Wave made several v'sit-> 10 iliu itrieil and listed sattts 
jntci citing specie* oi (aline and flfli"H on Hit 1,200 WW <>( onsali Ijaniers, 
mirshes 5IMJ open forest, Water-loving Wills make up one-third ol the 
125 species listed/to date, the best find, Glossy Ibis [PffUoiHi jnlt.inrlhi.i) 
being seen b> several observers last winter; the bird was with Straw-r.eckv.l 
( I'll iv ski* r, H. ■< xpijiitflilU) and White This < V. umIm.cq) , Thesi- White 
Ibis have a rookery Of about 2<I0 nests on tkittvr,ed-oi;t tussocks on tin. 
CTcek bank. Hrulu.a.< {M ttfalftnltt nil'u'imdust visit llw uvea but do IK* 
nest here: tlwy ami Corel ta* (Kttkttlae tCHiuraslr's) totne in from titrlliof 
east where both are. caniinoi-. While. Jt.tic'.s (litimhu atbu), Royal [t-'l<\lfi!m 
rata) and Yellow-billed SpuO'ibills I'. ]!<ivil>cx), .Nankeen Niyhl Her Wis 
i.XyctuMHr dttaltlltiOHt) twd Broyvu Bitterns [Hot annul [■■■)!( ilopiilnt) 
-ill hel-,) to justify Ibe SauthiWVy's prockjunatiO't. J C» pieties 01 dj HJ'HjjJ 
birds of jjt-ey (.Acai'itni'jui'cij have beenliucd, front WcdRe-;ailed liagle 
(biivifiim nmii>.Y) to ike beautiful Rlflcli-ilnJUWO'Cd Kft's (lit<»><is tf.dlirn-is) : 
the [slier is quae a newcomer, beiny, yiraciically unknown till September. 
195) Then there are, among other*, Kmu Wrens (S'ti/>iln)i>x itniltwhiivti}). 
Fautail Warblers (Cistir.nla c.riYi'.rl Grebes, Ducks (seven species), Crakvf, 
Parrots Hooey-caters and even an Oriole; (l),rit)lH\ .■iujill:itiis) , Azurt 
Kmj-'nMrvr (Atfymc asTCriW") and Barking Owi (A'tiw i,t)iwivt:ns), 

From Mr. Cliff Beauajeliole come the names of some, interesting botanical 
-p&ies In- lias recorded from I he Sanctuary Among lime ferns or feiii-likv 
plants ire Common Azolla (Aititlfl jiliailtiiclcs) and Shorl -limited X'ardoo 
( Ah'rju'h kirxxio) . We ItttW not Wtfild Azolla on anv olkei sIichiii |fl 
Portland Dttcncl, ajiU die Nr.rdoo is confined tu one small swamp, llll 
-viil,v lecoid for SAV. Victoiia. VV'm. Allitt tewded it "o - i 'Harlots Creek 
i:ear l-.ttnch" ovei 30 .years ago. and ibe Portland Club bad a lot in seandi 
l.vilnre rrdisroK-rnVf the 'plant \\ : aler S|X:i-.dwi:ll (I'ltiOHii'n {M/tgtlUtf) \f 
.an aitiodnted |>la it iiut nas spread alonj4 miles of the creek anil Is "lie 
onli Victotian record. Deep- rooted in cracks ot basalt hariiers gta\>' 
.seres oi Tree Violets iHyutnuwihr.ii <ri:ni(slifi>lin), ninih tvvm Hut a 
bo.v-i'iorn a vWlcl! some bns.ics are > Tcct htRli and 20 feet arounti. 
ycry ihovi.y, almost fcafiess, ami Covered i:i Ikltais. Many \ea:s ayo 
Undbiiidei 1 - rcasideil it js Si |>e^t and. pulletl oik lie l)'.islie> witn biUbiCk 
•tain, to ^reai h llie ilflSiglli eif the rocl-.-botnid plafti -a violet tdowi -vei . 
•the ^rea also yiows aninbe: violet the Purple Violel ff y frif[J l>t'hviicifvli;>) 
.on scrubby wet flats The creek is a real home, for two beautiful flrjwerliijj 
•.ilaits — 'Purple l.oose-ttnfe ( i.xihrum snlUiru') vrhose slunvr heads -tanr) , 

.out abi.'ve the rushes, and JjRr£C Bindweed : S^rl ysteyiti ntf^Uia) with its C.f 
l.'lree irfiik fluwfirs dlilllllJtJg over the dej15e. \v8tvi" vei'etation. VVoie; wood- / 

vutf t;4if>i'ntki subsimfi!'' 1 ') is moil interjiiing, as in V'iciori.i )t -i, orly 
i'oujkJ in (be S.W. eorncv and elsewhere only in Tasmania. Tioriiinanl 
p'auts along the stream are Tall .Spike Rush f73fcvrc/Hirj8f 'jf/jJKwWtf^. 
Common Ree.c.l (l'hnt>.)miu< n\:i.ri>ihi) , jjulruxli r.7w/m uaxivxlifitini ) 

Moatiuu Pondweed <J J vltititi>y r U>n lncorimiif/J>. ,ft1t-weu: OiaHts'wrin. £tf f~\£ 
..t/i/m/i.irK Mtid-duek (ihtWOX OWl-im) . Wa'.er ParS'iip ( Sfyi) Utinoliutn ■ / 
and Gipsywort (JtyfiMi/ (CoHt&tift, in .flcaDuy. JtiMU Connnoii I'iuckweed 
ILCtnHtl iiiruni'i -'ind a livr/n c-ti iRirrin iittfmii) appi»3V in «reaV mass 1 :^ 
l\'U)1 thr Azolla piliani tb».T are ihf Willosv;. tnnf; of thrin — \Vec*piuy 
(,'7nli\ t'Hi'.yl.iHtn) Ba'-k'-t f.V, ,v/' I— ir places co.ppVtel) llBwfeng x/ 

;l'v- . r:H'W / 


20 ,\ VV ni,«yr«K tixnoxion It, Mt. William Pv, ',.$'' 

In the Sanctuary Dai lots Creek crosses the Mount Eccles la\a Ho.v 
from west lo east and forms a series of rapids over which the pioneers 
crossed in the t!arlv 'forties" lire "hitherto Uiicrossabie Darlots Creek' . 
As it it a»i ever-fiowm.fc;' stream twenty (cct wide, leu feet deep, wilfi 
treacherous, boggy banks, it was. awl still is. a lormidable barrier. 


Held on March 22, s^OvftU 1 weather, with lowering clouds, prevailed 
most of the day. Leaving Esaendon about 9 a-m. in a fully-booked parlor - 
ear. via Ihe Romsey Road, granitic and sedimentary rocks, overlain witli 
basalt, were noted at nulla 

Passing Go'die North selino', the l-atirefield-Fyalcuig road cmsscj; the 
Divide m! I.S00 feet, a illil? west of Alt. William, ivhose. timbered iununit 
jit 2,(i.,W feet was shrouded in mist. Shortly after this the- hus was 'e'l 
and some conspicuous granite tors anil "balanced" rocks inspected, en roule 
to the aboriginal "quarries" which are on * spur of diabase rock at 2.<XK> 
iect elevation, and a mile north-east of the pe:«k 

The Mt. William fault line roughly forms a boundary lielween Silurian 
(to Hast) and Ordoviciau rocks. To the east of the North and South Coldie- 
spur are diabase, lavas and tuffs; whilst to the west Jkre cherty shales- 
and slates of Ordovician age. To south and cast aie volcanic plat«»u\\ at 
varying altitudes, mostly deated to form rich fr.tstuie and farm t.mds 

The aboriginal quarries comprise heaps of rock chipping- teSttfting from 
the work of the most primitive of human artificer;., thonch active barely 
a conury ago. 

For toughness and durability, this diabase grecusrone was superior to 
llval nf nther Victorian localities as a material for Axes, this being: 
realized by the aboriginal family which discovered these "i|iiarries '- 
Ar.ronliBfl to A. \V. Howitt, it was the first known instance o! property 
being vested in a family as distinct from a tribe: sr» was learnt a principlr 
of economics, vir. division of labour and progress fcy specialization. 

Messengers came Sroni as far a> Mt. Gambler fS A.) and the Riverina 
(N'.S.VV.) to obtain stwte axes front this family, bringing' gills of food 
and equipment in e.\r.hangc_ As the fame of »ts product spread, the ,'ann y 
then had little need to hunt. Hence, with food, etc., supplied, there ivas 
nwre (ime lo concentrate on making better axes. The aboriginal chipped 
with his stone tools from die edge of the axe inwards, taking the stone off 
in flakes. At each point of impact there is a small "cone of percussion", 
showing where the blow was struck; and so distinguishing his rhippmy 
front the disintegrating effrct of natural aseoric-s. A scries of such marks- 
is tlms evidence that the chipping was the work of human hands. 

Many axes in variuus stages of manufacture were scattered amongst 
the numerous chips heaped here: each being conscientiously discarded 
because of some flaw The family ownership of these CMiomes was upheld 
by tribal councils who disciplined some of the Avora tribe which raided 
the workshop ami stole Mire partly-completed: axes. 

Resuming our trip, after lunch. I'valong Mas Traversed : and Mulliion'^ 
Cieek. draining granitic country, in place', examined ou foot, was generally 
followed downslieatn past Glenaroua. Continuing towards Tallarook 
crossing [he Stigarloal and Sunday Creeks and a "tongue" of basalt extend- 
iiltr nnifh from near Mt Ptpei, and viifrjnfl die Tionllon svllrlflowr'* 
sanctuary, the Hume Highway was followi-i and III? city regained about 
9.15 [i in 

•\ VV HfRS.TClV. 

Itttt ] Limks— Protection- of Nalivt l'law<!lt 21 


To the Editor,— 

The Count!' of my Society has directed iitc lo correct a inisconcepti.-in 
oi the efficiency of the Wildflowos and Native Planus Act in N S.W 

My Society is of |hc opinion that tfX licensing system »n this State is 
most ineffective -uid has led to considerable abuse and graft, This view 
is shared by all the bodies interested in conservation that I have had contact 
with besides numerous private; individual and Trust bodies; such as those 
governing the Kuririg-gai Chase and Bouddi National Park (near Gosford). 
We are. as .1 matter oi tact, most despondent about seme of our "spectacular 
wildllowcrs" such as the Native Rose and the W.tratah, the last-named of. 
•which, we understand, is stolen from our National Reserves and sold on 
the Victorian markets at high prices. As a constant visitor to the sanc- 
tuaries and the wild life rands I can say personally that wildflowcrs >iru 
not "noticeably re-a verting themsmelvea" . . . far from it! 

The main abuse arises from difficulty in policing the act. Ueensen arc 
issued but flowers are stolen willy-nilly fiom reserve? and Crown lands, 
the tags being arrived to bunches of flowers tli3t are not taken from the 
so-called grower's property. Frequently, "growers" have admitted that 
they could not fossibly grow the great masses of blooms offered tor sale. 

We have conic to the conclusion that only prohibition of the sale of 'ill 
wildflowers other than Christmas Hush will prevent the loss for all time* 
oi our rich floral heritage. We believe sufficient Christmas Bush rs culti- 
vated to justify Hie exemption. — Yours, etc., 

.AtttN A. Strom, 
Honorary Secretary, Wild Life Preservation Society ol Atist- 

To the Editor, — 

Mr. Strom's remarki on the inadecjuacy of the. licensing system in iorce 
in New Soulh Wales under its Wildflower Protection Act are justified by 
.. knowledge o> deficiencies in its administration more intimate than I can 
ever hope to possess The comment which his Satiety regards as unjustified 
was based on leports which, T have so leason to doubt, wcidd he l{Utta 
true for certain localities although evidently far from true in others. 

I 2m told that wildflower thieving: in Kurnig-gai Chase is rampant and 
the thieves so determined that rangers who have attempted to intercept 
them have been threatened with violence. However deplorable this sort 
of thing may be it seems hardly fair to blame llie licensing system for 
what is happening. Rather should its Ndtitinistration he condemned. If 
the New South Wales Government, in policing the Act, were lo spend a 
small fraction of the money thai ir now spends an polking the teaming. 
Licensing and similar Acts governing the morals o{ the community, 1 
imagine that the now -vanishing wildRowers would indeed re-asscrt them- 
.'efves rn all localities. 

Public interest in native wildflowcrs >s comtiiMalty increasing and il the 
public wanes to grow them and use them for decorative pui|»os<.'s «" prefer- 
ence to the cultivated plants and wildfiowers of oilier lands why should 
they be forbidden to do so? Anyway, some of them are so little known 
that only specialists would recognise them as native plants, and complete 
prohibition would he just as hard to police as the present restrictions. 

It ir my personal view, hot one that is. I feel sine, shared by many 
people, that the best protection of all lies in a plant's widespread cultivatlur 
in peoples garden?. It is Certain! that West Australia's- Brown BoroiiM 
and the Gcialdton Waxflo.vei require no protection ior ihcn survival, and 

22 |J5IT8K*-i l-:i>>r.'H<w <>) V'Wfc'J fk'Mri | y^j ^ lC ' 

Mr .Si ran lumself feels that » 1 1 ti- New South Wales Christmas Bnssi 
should be exemplcd from I'lc prohibition dl.'e lib its wides|ve,id cultivation. 
Unless die ffowei over and hortieuluu ist become familiar with them .is 
cut flowers, the;, v. ili have Hub desire to possess ihem :is growing plan - .*.- 
and unless they are cultivated tlicy will inevitably disappear from ail 
places where nun ichabit". 

1 tin doubt I he wisdom o\ s blanket pr.iluhitioi, < m the sale of wifl- 
flowtrs. Why not press for i!i< :>roliibitioc by rc.ettbtiou ot specified' 
plants' - in New Soulh Wales the ?«!>.: ol the Waratah ami B<>rmn\\ 
.wmlcita- would seem to merit such if bun. We in Victoria could turn 
nur ullention to such plants as Sc'oiM M utiles add the I'ait'y YV.i.n- 
fipwtr, both 01 which appear to have raptured the lancy of dealers in 
cut flowers. Both »r'« j'stcd in *,lie Schedule of protected native ttUiH"' 
yet in regard to the Boroola. the Council of the Club has : )oeu informed 
that (fit Forests Cotrinirir>iori for « nominal sum Iteeaw* dealers to CTSt atfl 
triKkioud, nf it in one of the tew Gippsiaud y^tUffS where i( flourishes. 
This In the authority which administers oV Wildflower Protection Act ! 
Furthermore, under The Act the Minister alone can issue the permit, bin 
pi this instance the Commission appears to have exceeded its authority 
and dispensed with that inrmalitv — HI ill the cause of fire protection in 
.. State forest. Fvidcnth the safctv of our State forests and the, preser- 
vation oi onr rarer wildfluwers arc not contplele'y compatible aims. )l 
we cannot ens, ire complete piotecli'io at least we can strive to mitigate 
outright destruction, and one way of <lnt(yVj that !» to nitiodueo the lieetlslny. 
tyfctali ftntl cudcavnnr ti pcsuadi public opinion it is worth policlnc 

rlivUivel), — Yoon., elc . 

J. Kns Gauxut, 


A.i article- in (hi? 1'cuhnuh Fist of .Vlarrh 5. I^?2, staled 1h(i( rJylHj) t'ONC= 
had caused havoc among the plums, destroying fruit and breaking dovui 
limbs of tree:;. Peaches had also Suffered, and urchartlists feared .utacUs 
on apples Growers kid spent sleepier nights, as well as aiuiuuiiilioii. in 
slioolir.g the pesis, but when disturbance subsided they came back. Ot<l- 
cstaliiihlied growers at *!y.ibb-Hastings say this k only the second fine 
flviiiK foxes have visited the diMriet in munber?. 

Those who have read Francis Ratcblfes Flyinii 1-ox and ttriflwr/ S<w4 
will reuieinber tbul be c .ihs di'at flyinji foxes, or fruit-citiue, bw. aic 
pre-eniiuently warm country animals, hut in Australia they make seasonal 
aiigraliomi. L'suallv the wave peters out somewhere near the Victorian 
border, but it is thought that the reuCiit UueeusOmid bushfire? drove foxes 
iiirtlicr south tins aenson 

Flying fo*cs, says Rafcliffc, tn'c es^.-miallj ircaiurcs of lVl«t jungle.. 
drawing sustenance from the blossoms Had they been content to stay 
there, they would bavt romainttl comparatively uinmpoitae.t niembcrs of 
the Australian fauna If their n.'itiiff.l food is abundant,, they 'imj.iIU leave 
ihe orclwiiU alone, but when they dti .attach, inost of the commercial crop 
is safely picked before it attracts their attention, as cuey prefer their fruit 
line. Although raids of flying fo^cs may sometimes be a serious matter 
foe individual growers, the crops of al! ot them pul together form mi 
•'nsienificant item in Hie did of file hiijje ftViue fos: |'0|inlation 

— IC.l.M. 


'^"2 1 V> i'f.Kits - — Cnniiiiiiuil Sj-h\-yy 25 


' By \V. Pkkhv (Kaylehawk, Vic. 1 

While at Lake Rog.i (Victoria) in h'ebru-.iry, 1943. my atliT.rion \v,:S 
attracted by a great number of spider 'nests' or. numerous h'ee.s These 
nests, which varied ill size, consisted 01 masses of web through, which 
were numerous passageways. While some were as small as a tenuis lull, 
other, were much larger OilC vai". ; .enlitr nest was at least three, l i-et long 
and as many itet in giitli. The maker': attrf iuTewitants 0. these tests 
p:oved to lx the- species ot ciibelhtlc spider. limliiicnti rxvitt, These Mwler- 
are ainall. the ^niale'^ bod'.' length beiuji ftve ■t'.yicenths 01" an. hich. the 
mates oik si.slcciith 01' an mch 1c.n 

On pnllini; H nest 10 riltfefri lari^c number* of loth se\es wcrr- sc<M. 
whj'ch nbiprt'sitmi'. prompted nte tci lake C)V "C*l f'lil 'Cimil tl'C pilili'Ht 
The IWftt chosen w.'s siiiaII. 1 nmllly i.yliudi iotJ in sliapi', and HUpraviuiaitdy 
v.fii inch*-*. 111 li'iiyjlh by three inches in iliametf- T'nis was placed ni n 
eai'dboanl luiv pulled In piece;., ami lry the cmT' iit ni much vigilance, all 
I lie spiders wtre cauetil and counted. 

Ill all, lhoi'« \vew ft I fjficforfc, comprising A7 females and 14 males, it 
might not be exaggerating to estimate spiders in some of the fiti'e,er ilfrfU 
in tlimi sands, 

Msny c-'ist skins vcerc found, indicating that moulting takes place within 
the nest. 

Nothing is known as to thr fond of these spiders, but their huge mtrVief 
throughout these districts must lake an enormous toil ot insetts per annum 

The web? or nia:iy cribt'llutc spiders, due perhaps to the rather Mars* 
uatiirc ei! their threads and t' i<:i r unusual ->li ticUm: esteii dust eiSiyr, -The 
Lake Boga nests vveie very dirty, due 110 doubt to the severe dost sloiJiG 
winch occasionally Occur in t (i ir>. sandy region ,Ma ly ui the nests u't'e 
or Pop'ier- trees (the introduced .Vi/o'im.v mollfi, vybi'c' J 11 imhci ol cum* 
trees in .1 nearby property were ahno't matted Sftlall nests wicrc observe.! 
011 F.uralyprus trees along the road fron Bear:, Lagoon to Swan Hifl. 
Perhaps to the spiders' disadvantage i.s die (net t'oav these malted nests or 
webs must l>c injurious to the trees through harbourtua iiests. anil prcveiiriu;: 
leave? to lUr.ctioii in their uorinal manner. 

Fo: WO ideiUihcation ol these senders I am indtbtwl to .VI v, R, A. Dtiftii, 
Honorary AmtlinolOftiV.. Kaiiornl MusC-um of Vicioua. 


Mr. J iin V\ r .irsoo ooimrry niember at Alhury, u I' : ''Oa the afterii'Juu 
of Clu' Oav flfSl). J. took B. short o-.ttiiiR to the lagoon behind 
Wodonga, and sighted a )> ol Cirstcd firetjcs (Pt'riiri'py t'rmiotui) feed 
ing J/aitilgr, mid several Nankeen Niglu Herons (Nytlicom r rai*c)ei<<c:ts), 
which have not been noticed pre\ loe.sly this suniiuer. The Ibllomnj; day. 
Boxing Day, was OIU! to lemeinbet. J waded right into thr back ni the 
Kicw.-.. Pint country, and discovered as fine a Cormorant rookery as -one 
could wish for — a hie,' gum-tree some 90 feet liij>l" held nests nil nearh' 
every fork, about si <ty or more I would say at A euess A.I lens! three 
species — Little Pied LtfiereeHrbn mcUnwIvucnx). Little Black [Plinlarrn-- 
eoi'n.r o'r<) and ibe larger Pied (P-var'ntx) were nesluai together Most 
npst=. he'd younj!', ami wry liad-inannerert youii"- too. if one vein clo^e, for 
they spewed half-eaten yabbie. tic. down ill large qitantities. so iiiy obser- 
vations were made at a respectable ' On a i>.Iieu tree in ihc water, 
ami on two low saplitigs. were clustered Oilier iie>i* ot the little Pied and- 
Littje Black ruid close scrutiny could \vz 'nade oi tlis> young: and -etigs in. 

•24 Wit,i.i», ■Myrohwf-Kw,n, t^S*" 

these. What disgustingly ugly and filthy little creature they were, toOi 
-with their half-OakeU bodies awl vulture-like heads: some were nearly 
ready lo fly. 

ClajC t<j this colony was a reed bed covering perhaps 50 to 100 acre?, 
and here the White Ibis (Threskwrms motuica) were nesting in numbers. 
1 estimated from SO lo ISO nests, bin it was hard to gauge accurately as 
■zfi many id the young birds were already able to fly. TiWe still on the 
«esls made an interesting picture, though they took to the reeds immedi- 
ately a cktse-r appioHch was attempted. Two nests only contained eggs 
No Straw-necked this (7" spinicoth's) were nesting, though odd birds were 
flying around, along with scores of figrets,, Spoonbills (two species). 
Herons, and many Nankeen Night Herons, including young birds. Two 
large brown birds disturbed from the reeds obviously were Bitterns 
(Bo I our us /wVi'')/m7ti() — birds for whie.h I have been searching for many 
■yc-*r« hut up to now, unsuccessfully 

H C.E S 


(A Review) 

By J. H. Willis 

So extremely important have fungi Income fit man's economy and so 
-fHiuierons arc the genera and species — about 39,000 were on record ten 
ye»rt ago, not including the lichen-formers — that it is difficult to gain a 
satisfactory impression of the whole vast fungus realm. We need a com- 
pletely modern approach to the subject and that has been attempted by 
Dr. J. A. Macdonald, of St. Andrew's University, Scotland. His firmly 
bound octavo volume of 177 pages, which appeared last year, takes us 
Jhrough the various classes and orders of fuugi as at present recognized 
and deals with (he major phenomena in general terms. There is a short 
-chapter on mycorrlma and a final one on lichens. Line drawings aim at 
explaining the diversity of reptoductive structures, but Itave much to be 
desired, those of Sit" 'titin hii'SHhtm and 5". pwrpiw ctttti on page 1H, for 
instance, nrr hopelessly crude and remind one of art inverted Hvdnutn and 
.some extraordinary polyporoid growth respectively. 

Australian students will be disappointed at the failure to mention a single 
''Vegetable caterpillar'^-those amazing fungi of the genus Cordycxps which 
parasitize insects and reach their' highest development in southern Australia 
(C. tayhri may produce spectacular fruiting bodies a foot in height). The 
highly fascinating subject of luminosity is dismissed in two lines, and there 
-is no treatment — apart from a scant reference to Prutrilliuin ■nntnln.m — of 
the very important modern developments in fungal antibiotics. With these 
-and other omissions, one wonders whether the little volume is really worth 
2l/«r, in this regard it compares unfavourably with J. Ramsbottoin's fvifti, 
wmch was distributed by Penn's Library in 1929 for sixpence! Inlrtxhutiaii 
Jo Mycology is obtainable through Butleiwoiili & Co.. 6-8 O'CoivkI! Street, 
Sydney, and was published by the same firm in London 

The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol, 69 — No. 3 JULY io.. 1953 No. 823 


The Annual Meeting of the Club was held at The Herbarium 
on Tuesday evening, June JO, 1952. About 100 members and 
friends attended. 

Mr. Eric Rush and Miss Joyce Braithwaite were welcomed a$ 
new Ordinary Members of the Club, 

The Secretary's Annual Report was read and received on the 
motion of Mr. Chalk, seconded by Mr Banks, and was adqrted 
on the motion of Mr. Sarovich seconded by Mr. Dickens. 

Miss Fletcher, the Hon. Treasurer, presented the Club's 
Financial Statement. After discussion it was moved by Mr. 
Miller, seconded by Mr. Chalk, that the statement be received 
and adopted. Mr. Coghill moved that congratulations be 
accorded to the Hon. Treasurer; seconded by Mr Stewart. Mi. 
Chalk, Hon. Auditor, then reviewed the Club's finances over 
the past year. 

The retiring President gave a short and stimulating address 
on the opportunities that existed /or our Club to carry out the 
ideals lor which it stood. ^ 

The election of Office-bearers and Committee for the ensuing 
year then took place. As only one. nomination had been received 
for President, that of Dr. M. Chattaway, Mr Lord then declared 
Dr. Chattaway elected. Be tore vacating the Chair in her favour 
he thanked all members of ' Council for their work during tl>e 
past year, also those members who had found it necessary to 
retire before the year had ended- Dr. Chattaway took charge 
of the meeting and the election of Office-l>earers proceeded. 

A fresh ballot had (o be held when three members tied for 
election to Council, Names of new Office-bearers are on inside 
back cover. 

On the motion of Mr. F. Lewis, seconded by Miss Fletcher. 
Messrs. Chalk and Hooke were nominated as Club's Auditors, 
and dulv elected. Thev were thanked for their past services to 
the Club. 

The President announced that two old and valued members 
of the Club, Mr. V. H. Miller and Mr. L. W. Cooper, had been 
proposed as Honorary Members, This was received with applause 
and they were duly elected. 

A letter had been received from the Director of the National 
Museum stating that they would be celebrating their centenary 

26 l-rekt Naturalists Club Proa-erihtgs Cyl^ 

♦•arly in .19.54 and asking if any members had .any information 
which would 'be of use in trie compilation of a History" of the 
Museum, he would like to receive ii. 

The subject of the By-Laws was thrown open for discussion, 
birt there were no comments from members present. 


BOTANY— Greenboods from Beaumaris, growing in tin. Increased frcm 
12 bulbs in 5 .years, being fed on ti-trce Icafmould.-— Mr E. Rush. PtcmstyUi 
fxlttt, from Woodside, Fungi from Yarram-Woodsidc— Mr. P. Fiseh. 
Seeds of Flmdcvsio ptibtsctus— Mr, K. Atkins. Dagger FTakca {HnJceo 
pugioniformes) — Mr, A. C. Brooks. 

SHELLS — Marine Shells, Family Muricidac including M. d-e-wtdatns 
Perry, if, tiifutmis Reeve, iW. awjasi Crosse from Victoria, arid M. itobt- 
fi\rthi Reeve (W Ausl), M, endivia Lam. (Mauritius), M. polnwrosoc 
L. (Ceylon), M. teuuispitta (Ceylon), M, piutnUas Wood (China), 
AL ff/inVnmw (N. A*rtt.j>. M. hrnudaris Linn. (Medit.), M. Iruuciifas 
Linn. (Medit.)— Mr C. J. Gabriel, and Miss Macfie. 

NESTS — Nests of AcMittrisa tlictiuMensis, and Acamlwrnis hKigiiut 
(Tasmania) . Bird Chart — "Some Insectivorous Birds nf Victoria".— M>ss 

ENTOMOLOGY— Pttfisma— Balaam. 

ARTIFACTS — Two aboriginal artifacts found together at South 
Traralgon— axe and sbaryeUer — Air. F. Lewis. 

FJSH — Cffjiits pcrspicxltotus ((.*. & V.) — Mrs. Freame. 


The only native shrubs in my garden which dowered from the first day 
|o the last of winter were Rosemary Grevillca (G. rosrwirrnifvtm) and the 
common greenish-flowered Correa (C. rtrftcifa), but those which flon-errd 
for many weeks during winter iiveluded a red variety Correa, Grampian's 
Thryptomeile (71 calycina), Long-leaf Waxflower (Eriostenum myopor- 
rtides), Chvrizcma cordatimi, and the pink form of the. Furplc Corat-pes 
(Hardotbcr/yia vichcea, var.). Wattle.- which flowered during' winter 
include the Golden Rain (Acucia prominent'), CootatnUildra (A- Baitcyana), 
Coast (A. sotikorae), atul Green or Early Blaek (A, (JfCiMTw). 

As the greater glories of spring advanced, the Swan River Pea (Brncbv 
Si'Mii latifoiinm), Gerald ton Wax Flant (Ch-amcl'iucium niuinatiim), Heath- 
niyrtle (Microwyrtiix atiatits), Fairy Waxflower {Eriostemon ohovolis), 
Olive Grevillea, (G. oleoklex), Show> Bossicea (B (WW), Common 
Beatd-heatb ( Lui'cohoffon viritntut) and Common TTeath (71/>ncW.f hit.prrsia) 
•.vere all in flower- 

I have mentioned enough shrubs to show that an Australian garden need 
•lot lack colour during the winter, but a more experienced grower coold 
doubtless add many more attractive plants to this list. 

— A.E B. 



^*] T. Z Hr,i*t. A.;.- urcliul—!'l>aws,r<itiui 27 


By T. K. Hunt, Ipswich, Queensland. 

Fhauif pictus sp. nov 

fter'.xi {cfVt'itHt iv!i<hi, Cuiilis ifrio 00 oil,- flints, p-tiriSt, ereetits.. 
fjuadraii'jiiJiins, ad bHs~li bullw pari it (circa J cut. (liamctro) prarditui. 
Foli\t inferiora tttt .uitatitias vttijiinrntcs redaela; joliu suferiora 4-', 
tattceulnta, circa 40 cm, :v JO cm., pliatta. acuta pe'ltokna. Tftfi&Wi* 
tmjtitt v Quolibvt iuhIu circa? W em. tonga-, imd'iflora, crecta. Uractrae 
nV.-rt J 1 ' cm, lout/tic. hilissiiHoe, /.anient- ant/dedailcs, Ovarium cum 
pctliccilo i'l on lt<u%inii r enrvitia. /•'/men circi! .5 cm. diamctrn. aunt, 
C.vtus viridc t't inttis rubra n,'tati, SeplaUt. cf pctala acijuilahgit. 2(t 
cm. Ininja,, acuta; .(cfiultini darsatc 5 mm. latum, sefimcnio- 
alia nnijustmra. .tcpnitt ct ft'ltth alurnrc multinervtita el buxin X'ersui 
puree pthtsa. Lal/ctlitin ?■! cm. Itmyum, nechwi,- anrcitm M&thQk* 
rubra valde iiolatinn : calcur Icnae, clirvnM. l/asi (olutnnac adjvnctitm, 
tffi'i a'c'isc ptd'fxccHti; lamina SUlViltadWO, B tncdio basin versus 
irttntva i' iiwrfip \nui\a ad af>iccin puttda rt ?iw t/inibits imdtUata, linen 
ditabit.' Ir.tis ■il/sciti'ii; nntata, ntriti'ptc pnecc. pilosa, intus propc ap-icem ptltsa. I alumna antra, crecta, 1 -.5 cm. hitcjo, parc.c pilosa; 
ctlac scrralttc, aiilhctttiih chi'/rntcs ca hand Imiywrcs- Anthers flava. 
/>.'"'<"'' pilosa, Stigma hhtm, Pmtmuium, niii cohiumac ampkc'iinu 

Habitat: Queensland — Cook District, on Bellenden Ker Range 
above 2.000 teet. U ( j. J. H Wilkie, May, 1947, (TYPE, in 
Queensland Herbarium. Brisbane). 

A Terrestrial, with stem up to 6Q cm. (two ieet) high, slender, 
erect, 4-angled, swdlen at the l«>e inio a small bulb up to 3 cm. 
in diameter, green, nodes above the bulb 5 or 6. Lower leaves 
reduced 1u sites thing scales, a fret lamina appearing at about the 
fourth from the base; upper leaves 4 or 5, elliptical, plicate, up to 
40 cm. lone,' and 10 cm. wide,' acute, petiolatc, the petiole about 
30 an. long on the uppermost pah. Inflorescence, axillary, appear- 
ing from any of the nodes above the bulbous base — in the two 
flowering plant* received, the inflorescence arose in both cases 
from the third node above the bulb, in one 20 cm. and in the 
other 30 cm. from the ground. Raceme up to *50 cm. long, inany- 
Howcrcd, ertct. Bracts 2 7 cm. long, very broad, sheathing, pale 
ijreen. Pedicel with ovary 2 7 cm. long, curved. Flower* about 
.i cm. across, deep buttercup yellow, somewhat greenish ymside 
and heavily ciAimed inside with rich red. Dorsal sqwl 2'6 cm. 
long, 5 mm. DN'iad, lanceolate, acute- lateral sepals narrower Petal.-* 
equal in length to the sepals, but much narrower; all these seg- 
ments with strc-raf longitudinal veins, the central three more pro- 
minent than the others, and with a few scattered short, white 
setae at the base. Labellum 2 1 an. long, erect, the narrow curved 
basal spur fused to the bas>c of the column; the free lamina as 
broad as long but incurved so as to embrace the column, spreading 
anteriorly, entire, margins undulate-crisped, plnte with two broad, 


T. 1L Htttf-r. .V.?7i' Or.-'ud—Pliaitts fiietut 

fVict. Na> 
I Vn). 69 


(A.) Lower part' of pseudo-hulli. (B .) Portion of the upper part of 
pseudo-bulb, showing axillarv inflorescence and lower leaves. (C.) Flower 
from side. (D.) Flower from beneath. (E.) Column from front, anther 
removed. (F.) Column from side. (C.) I-abellum from side. (H.) Label - 
lum from above, flattened out. (1.) Cross section of labelitmi, showing 


(AH figures approximately 2/3 natural size.) 

ml J T - E ' Hu:CT • 'Vff'O.ifliirf— Phains ftfcWj 29 

flat, hardly discernible raised line* terminating near the tip in u 
small dense patch of white cilia; upper .surface completely be.sct 
with long, line, white cilia, the interior of the spur densely 
pubescent, the lower surface of Ihe labdlum tearing a few .shorter 
cilia , tlie whole labellum a clear buttercup yellow, with many tines- 
of rich red dots above and two groups below. Column pale yellow, 
erect, I 5 cm. long, broader at the top, sparsely beset with short 
white dla ; wings serrated, extending in front of and behind the 
anther but not exceeding it. Authei yellow, beset also with cilia. 
Stigma broad, deep, immediately below' (he anther and embraced 
by the column wings. Poilen masses oblanceolate. laterally com- 

The flowers blacken when damaged and when- pressed. 

'Phis beautiful species differs radically [roin those already known 
to occur in Australia and reviewed recently by the late IV. H. 
NichoHs ("The Genus Piiaius in Australia",' Vict. Nut. 67: 10-15. 
May, 1950). The .species discussed there belong to swampland.s 
and wet, boggy places in the hot, humid coastal belt and estuaries 
along the past coast ot Queensland and the Northern Rivers Dis- 
trict of New South Wales, and arc sinilar to each other in growth : 
they form very large pseudo-bulbs from which spring the large, 
plicate leaves and the inflorescence. P. Pictux came from an eleva- 
tion of 2,000 ft. in the Bellenden Kev Range, where the nature 
of the soil and the. climatic conditons would lie very different. Its 
habit alone would prevent any possible confusion with the earlier 
known species, as the leaves and inflorescence arise from a tall. 
slender, 4-angled stem, with a hardly conspicuous pseudo-bulb 
at its base. 

Although ' the. flowers are somewhat smaller th;m those of the 
other Australian species, their rich clear colouring (buttercup 
segments marked with crimson and backed by large, clear apple- 
green bracts) makes them very distinctive and of undoubted hotti- 
cuHural value Apparently this is a rare plant, even in its- 
restricted habitat, so it is to be hoped that the nigged terrain and 
jungle> of the mountains, which have hidden it so long, will. 
effectually prevent its paying the price of its beauty. 


II is recorded with regret, that Mr. Jack JT.-irdy, who wits on the start 
of the printers of The NuluraHsl (Bf0wn, Trior. Anderson Pty. Lid.) 
died on July 3 at the early age of 43 years, His willing hcli> and {riemll.. 
^-operation over the years cWWtt a great deal to twsy editors ot tin* 
Journal, and our sympathy goes out to his wife and family, 






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Balance in Savings Bank at 30/4/ 1 95 1 

Interest on Current Account . . .. 

i5S 5 
I 4 

.£56 9 

Taken into Ordinary Income of vear to 30/4/1953 £6 10 
Balance in Savings Bank at 30/4/1952 ., '.. 49 10 

£56 9 I) 



Building and Contingencies Fund -£980 17 1 
Dudley Best Library Fund ,, .. 50 

Subscriptions paid in advance- 

Lffe Membership , . , , 

£62 13 1 
49 19 

•i 1.030 17 1 

Excursion Account 

Special Donations in hand 
Surplus of Assets over Liabilities 

Audited and found correct, 

A. S. CHALK \ 
A. G. HOOKE ( 

June 10, 1952. 

112 12 1 

67 3 4 

49 15 6 

.-' 1,005 18 2 

£2,266 6 2 


Bank Current Accounts — Net Balance .. 

Arrears of Subscriptions, estimated to realize 

Sundry Debtors . . • , . ,., . , . r . . 

Stucks on hand at valuation — 

Publications ±184 

Badges . . 30 

to 16 1 

45 7 ,3 


Investments — 
Dudley Best Library Fund — 

Commonwealth Bonds 
Building and Contingencies Fund — 
C'wealth Bonds £950 
E.S. St A. Bank 
Account . , .. 30 17 1 


980 17 1 

Library. Furniture, Epidiascope, Loud Speaker 
and Water Colour Paintings., at valuation 

- 1,030 17 1 


£2,266 6 2 

Hon. Auditors. 

JL FLETCHER, Hon. Treasurer. 


32 .fnvnf.r-MCfW Annuel Retort [ ''vut.'so *" 


Vour Council has pleasure in submitting the 72nd Annual 
Report for your consideration. 

Another successful year has closed with a total membership 
ni 512, consisting o( 33S ordinary memlx:rs, 147 country members, 
? juniors, 18 honorary and 5 life members. 

We have again to mourn the passing of some members of 
the Club, amongst whom were Mrs. Edith Coleman and Messrs. 
f. M. Black and Geo. Lyall. 

Mrs. Coleman you will remember obtained the Australian 
Natural History Medallion in 1949. Last year, Mr. Tarltort 
kayment, the Club's nominee, received Ihe Awa«d. 

The lectures given to the Club during the year have been 
varied and interesting and generally speaking of a high order. 
)t is noted, however^ that very few of our own regular members. 
contribute to these programmes. Surely there are some of us 
who could give an interesting and edifying evening on subjects 
10 which wc have given some special attention. After all. this 
'.s supposed to he a club of naturalists devoted to the study of 
all branches of natural history. If that is so, and if we are really 
doing some study, why not let the club have the benefit of this, 
knowledge? Perhaps two could share the one evening. 

The State Development Committee has presented its report on 
National Parks to the Government which is now engaged in 
preparing legislation to implement the Committee's recommenda- 
tions. Just what fonn the legislation will take is not yet known, 
but the Council is keeping in touch with the Mihister of Lands 
on the subject. 

We have also been in touch with the Town Planning Authority 
of Melbourne regarding the possibliiy of having some of the 
Beaumaris/Sandringham area reset ved as a Wild Flower Sanc- 
tuary, but after a careful examination of the locality by a special 
si ib- committee, the Council found regretfully that such a proposal 
was impracticable . 

You hardly need reminding that finance has given your Council 
'< great amount of worry and anxiety during the year. Continually 
rising costs have forced us to economize in the size of our Journal, 
but in spite of this, the Council, in order to make ends meet, very 
reluctantly had to ask members for an increase in subscription 
rates. Before this was done every possible avenue was explored, 
and the action taken was on the unanimous recommendation of 
the special finance sub-committee appointed to go into the matter. 
The advertisements in the Journal have recently decreased in 
number owing to the increasing financial stringency, and llns 
has seriously reduced our revenue too, 

5jjJ ] Snsruty-second Annual Kvlwri Si 

The various study groups associated with die Club have iunc- 
tioned more <-r successfully during the year They all, 
however, would gladly welcome new members to their ranks. 

A few month? ago the Native' Plants Preservation Group 
decided to sever its connection with the Club and now functions 
as an independent entity under the title of the Native Plants 
Preservation Society of Victoria. Our best wishes are with this 
■organization m their effort* to preserve fur posterity some oi 
octr fast disappearing native flora. 

The Junior Club at Hawthorn under the able leadership of 
Mr. Baker and Mrs, Freame is still a most enthusiastic and 
■eneigetie body of young people, ft is an inspiration to attend 
one of their meetings and nole Ihe enthusiasm and interest shown 
by 'ihe members. Mrs. Freanic and Mr. Baker deserve our 
thanks and commendation for their untiring efforts at Hawthorn. 

Our By-Laws have now been completed and publisher! after 
a very strenuous two years' work by Mr, J. Ros Garnet and his 
committee. Much wojk j> involved in drafting a set of ride* 
such as those we now have. 

At this stage, it it fitting to refer to the work of the Council 
as a whole. They meet monthly starting at 7.45 p.m. and often 
not finishing a heavy programme of work until nearly 11 p.m. 
During die year the meetings have been attended by almost 
100 per cent, of members. Recently t as you know, our President, 
Mr. Lord, has been kept away through illness, but we are glad 
to know be is progressing so satisfactorily. One of our Vice- 
Presidents, Mr. Davidson, has had to resign because of ill-health. 

The first affiliation of another. Naturalists Club under our new 
By-1 .aws has just been achieved by the desire of the. Maryborough 
Club to be actively associated with us. We give them a cordial 
welcome. . t 

.Now as Tegards the future, the Club in spite of all the difficulties. 
financial and otherwise, confronting us. is still a virile and 
healthy organization. We are A long way from becoming senile. 
But may wc appeal to our members to be more active in the 
next year in some of the following ways : — 

, Bring along more exhihts to the meetings, with explanatory 
comments. - 
Short notes on matters of interest would also be very welcome 
to the President at our meetings and to the Editor of 
the Journal. 

(By the way, if you are talking to the Club and have a map on 
the wall or a Slide On the screen, don : t look ut the screen or wall 
as you talk' — face the audience and speak up. using the microphone 
if necessary,) 

34 Sevotty.-secmid A*>mmi Hefort V%^tt 

Wc must not close without mentioning the receipt of a legacy 
of £25 from the Estate of - the late Mr. Forth. Perhaps other 
members might remember tlie Club in their wills. 

Finally, we must again express our thanks to Mr. Otto for his 
kind assistance m arranging for the advertisements in the 
Naturalist; to Mr A. W. Jessep for the use' of this fine hall 
and the room for Council meetings; to our honorary Auditors tor 
their valuable help in connection with financial matters; to the 
Royal Society for the use of the lower hall in their rooms in 
which to store the Club's Library and as a meeting place fnr 
die various study groups ; to Miss Morton for valuable help as 
Assistant Secretary, and Messrs. Ros Garnet and Stewart on 
the Council for many years, all three ot whom are nor standing 
tor re-election this year; and finally to all who by their interest 
and devotion have assisted in any way the work of the Club 
during the past yearT 

On behalf of the Council, 

F. LEWIS, Secretary 


The all-day excursion to the You Yang's on May 24 was well attended. 
On, the way the leader drew attention to several monuments, erected to 
r.<rly explorers and spoke about the tribal boundary of the early aboriginal 
owners of the country on the Werribce River. Two very early excursions 
ot' the Club to the locality were commented upon and passages from early 
issues of The Victorian Naturalist were read. Birds were plentiful hut no 
unusual species were noted A Bronze-wing Pigeon sitting in die discarded 
nest of a Chough was :i late record for rhc nesting of this species, 

Tn addition, to those species of eucalypts growing naturally hi the area, 
there are fine stands of this species from all over Australia lis the Forestry 
Reserve. It is a splendid place to sec. the different types growing together. 
Twenty-six species of birds were recorded for the trip. 

— E. Hanks, 


In Vic. Nat. 69: 13. June 1952 ("The Darlot's Creek- Sanctuary"), 
the following typographical slips affect the spelling of several Imtanieul 
names and call for correction : 

From bottom of page i° — second lino, read SallX (not Satis) \ 6th due, 
read Siv.m (not Sunn) ; 7th line, read Eel-weed, VaHisncria {not Rl!-we.ed, 
ValHsitcria) ; 13tli line, read Calystcgia (not S'alystcgia) 



TO Years' Service — Mr, G. Coghill 




With a history of nearly three-quarters of a century, the F.N.C.Y. has 
listed not a few remarkable records of membership and service. But surely 
the record made at the next general meeting (July) should stand as unique. 
On this occasion Mr. George Coghill will complete his seventieth year of 
continuous active association. 

Joining up in July 1882. when, 
the first President. Sir Frederick 
McCoy, was still in office. Mr. 
CoghiH's entry pre-dates '1 he Vic- 
torian Naturalist, now in its 69th 
volume. The pages ot the journal 
over the years refer consistently 
and eloquently to Mr. Coghill's 
efforts, so manifold and varied as 
to be impossible to give but in 
barest outline here. Two years only 
had elapsed when he got into har- 
ness as Assistant Secretary ; at 
tile same time his father-in-law, 
the Rev. Dr. J. J. Halley, a keen 
ornithologist, began his presiden- 
tial term of three years. When 
the founder of the Club, Mr. 
Charles French, Snr.. became 
President in 1897, Mr. Coghill had 
progressed to Hon. Secretary, 
maintaining that office until Mr. 
J. A. Kershaw took over some 
years later. From 1903/4 until 
1919, a period of 15 years saw 
him as a devoted Hon. Treasurer. 
On vacating that l>osition Mr. 
Coghill received a presentation in 
recognition of his sterling work. Then in 1925/26 the Club bestowed on 
him its highest honour, that of President. 

Although not aspiring to the academic attainments of some of his 
distinguished colleagues, Mr. Coghill, by virtue of his capacity for hard 
work in the several offices he held, his infectious enthusiasm for nature, 
his cheery presence, with wildflower buttonhole, at practically every func- 
tion of the Club, his business acumen, his power of getting the best out 
of others, and by the foree of his example, is entitled to be regarded as 
outstanding in our history. To quote one example, both he and the late- 
Mrs. Coghill were unfailing in their efforts at the Club shows, travelling 
far afield to bring in exhibits, and taking pains in their setting up. 

Whenever the ways of finance proved difficult, Treasurers always found 
Mr. Coghill ready with kindly advice or monetary help. A typical instance 
of his frequent generosity occurred when the Council, worried over the 
disappearance from the library shelves of Campbell's Nests and Ei/gs of 
Australian Birds, decided, after a fruitless search, to purchase a secondhand 
copy, offered at an expensive figure. Aghast at this, Mr. Coghill insisted 
on the cancellation of the order and presented his own copy to the library. 
Some years later the missing volume turned up. It need hardly be men- 
tioned the donor never sought his copy back. So now the Club is the 
fortunate possessor of two copies of this valuable hook. 

$ TO VW Smite— Mr. G. CoghiU l^.w' 

Until his reliieraetrt from the Council in i u 4<!, Mr. CoghiU gave a 
special lustre to the post of Senior Vice-PresidcM. dispelling any dark 
ioggestion that siiclt position was a sinecure. He was ever alert to extend 
a hand to later Presidents who stumbled by the way — the writer at least 
being one. White he was on the Council, nomination* for presidential 
office were relatively easy, as hesitant nominees invariably acquiesced wlic-n 
assured our stalwart Senior Vice would stand by, to stc|> into the breach 
if oe«j arose. 

Wiih 1t« flair for organisation. Mr. Coghill was outstanding with 
excursions in earlier days. Under his direction, which he avers was 
thrust upon him At the last moment, one very successful camp-out took 
place. This, was at the Buffalo Mountains over the Christmas period of 
1903, fifty years after the first ascent of the range by Baron von Mueller. 
There were no roads up then, nor tracks as we now know them to-day on 
the Plateau. Ram fell incessantly, the tents leaked, and walking was the 
only iikmis of progression Yet (he party contrived to make a complete 
rcologScal sludj of the Buffalo, and even added ■some notes oi a sr/rlie cm 
foot to Mount BoKong. Mr. Coghill collated the material lo print over 
sixteen pages in The I'idorian Naturalist for March. 1904, an issue 
•often sought for reference, but now out of print. Probably this account 
on be considered the most coinprehcnsiiv field survey ever made and 
wriltcn up to the Club's annals. 

Members are grateful to Mr. Coghill for all the love, time, labouT and 
money he lias lavished on the Club, and .congratulate him on the achieve- 
ment of his seventieth anniversary. 

r -H.CE.S. 


i,\ Review! 
By P F Mohrib 

Years of patient botanical research • and delineation lie behind tins 
-fascinating and valuable addition to the series already reviewed in our 
journal (f'/cf, Not, Oct. 3943, July 1950 and March 1951). 

Miss Stella Ross-Craig, with her exceptional flair for descriptive draw- 
ings and painstaking accuracy of dctad, provides a standard set of illustra- 
tions of the Caryof>hyU<ucm established in the British Isles. E3ch fainiliji' 
plant is portrayed in natural she and the enlarged dissections! figures of 
flower parts and fruits are of sufficient magnification to explain their 
structure quite clertrly ; the microscopic seed sculptures are works of singular 
beauty Miss Craig matches great artistic ability with botanical accuracy, 
emphasising in the line' drawings, those important features by which each 
plant may be most easily identified. r 

Many of tl»e subjects arc cultivated or occur as weeds in Australia — the 
chickweeds. campions, pearl-worts, spurries, catchfly and pink ; the work 
should thus be of great value to botanists, teachers and students here. The 
modern tendency to make every old subgenus a distinct trenus has resulted 
ill such a monstrovs name as Kohlrauscltia prrififera for the common 
Productive Pink, but that is the fault of the. botanist and not of the 
artist. Eventually some 1,800 plates will appear in this excellent series. 
published by G. Bell & Sons, London. 

•as' ] c - E - CmApwick. Insect CmmiOalism 3? 


On May 21. 1052, Ibrce larvae of Htliothis annigem (Hubn.) wen: 
fournl an cauliflower* at Windsor, N.S.W. One larva was very small, 
another about half gmwn auri the third larva apparently- mature. The 
three larvae were left overnight 111 a matchbox. At 3 p.ur. next day. when 
the matchbox was openea the smallest larva had disappeared BM the large 
cateri-illar was found on its side slightly curled around the other caterpillar 
which it was eating. Oil examination it was found that the head and 5.11 
the thorax with the exception of the third left leg of the victim had 

Cannibalism among phytophagous l:uv»e is by no means untrnowi, 
e.g. Hammer in his papir Lift>-ltutnry Studies on the Codling Mpth i» 
Michigan (U.ST) A., Bull. 115, part 1, *1°I2, p &*) states that when large 
number* of mature codling moth larvae ate confined some larvae kill and 
later devour, weaker larvae. The cannibal then assumes a dull, turbid 
colour and may be readily distinguished from other larvae Aho i« lias 
been observed that several newly-hatched larvae may enttr a fmit and a 
greatly-reduced number will emerge; jn the latter cane however one 
might wonder if competition might he a factor. 

E. CrfAotvicK 


{A Review) 

By I, Ros Gabnet 

It is now some 20 years since (he late Mrs. Emily Pelloe published her 
small handbook on West Australian orchids. In those two decades much 
has been added to the botanical records of the West, and it is gratifying 
that one so competent « Mrs. Eridcscin should have carried on the tradition 
established by Mrs. Pelloe and undertaken the task ol presenting us with 
an accurate and op-to-date survey <ii these records insofar as they apply 
to, the orchids of West Australia. 

The known species and recognized varieties of Wcstrah'an orchid arc 
listed and succinctly described under the appropriate genus, and the text is 
j liberally supplemented by accurate line drawings of typical plants or i,nch 
parts as will help in the differentiation of species and genera. Delightful, 
alike to the general reader and the more exacting eye of the botanist, arc 
the colour plates reproduced from the author's original paintings repre- 
senting some 26 species These lend distinction to a hook which even 
without them would prove, a valuable pocket companion to th>; held 
naturalist and bush rambler. Its value for the field observer is enhanced 
by.thc inclusion of simplified keys to the various genera and to the species 
of most of them. By the tree of these keys it should prove an easy enough 
task to identify any of the 147 species recorded for the West. 

For naturalists and orchid cnthusi,±sss in other States the book will 
certainly not lack interest. Anyone at all interested in the curious manifes- 
tations (A Nature cannot fail to be fascinated by the essays which introduce 
welt of the sections in which the author treats of the 22 genera of orchids 
known in West Australia. Here, in simple non-technical terms, the reader 
is introduced to the captivntmj? study of orchids, to their curious and 
intriguing floral structure and the purpose it serves in the process e-f 
fertilization, to the observations of the author herself on (be jx>)hnation o(- 
a numlter of species each by special insect agencies, to plant inierauon, 

38 J. Ros Gaunct. Orchids of the West (Kcvievu) V&m 

Teaction to environment, wildflowcr conservation and protection, and a 
host of other interesting facets oi the natural history of Australia's ground- 
dwelling orchids. 

A tew minor errors have escaped the notice of the proof-reader, ami 
it is, perhaps, worth while drawing attention to a few omissions. On page 
57 "P. firmbia" should read "P. fimbria". In the section dealing with the 
genus Corylras pp. 71-73) the epithet "dilatata" instead of "dilatatus" 
occurs incorrectly on two occasions. And should not the acknowledgiueni 
subscribed to figure 3, page 71, be to Nicholls and Rupp rather than to 
Nicbolls and Rogers? 

The errors of omission refer mostly to lire notes on the cxtrn-Westralijtn 
distribution of species. For example. Ihrlym-itra muia and T. Paitciflwa 
(page 23), Microtis orbicularis (page 48) and CattidcnUt de format (page 
9o) all occur tit one or more of the Stale; than those listed. 

In those pages dealing with pollination by insect agency, full reference 
is made to the pioneering observations of Darwin and Fitzgerald and to 
the later researches of Coleman and Sargent, but, sad to say, this reviewer's 
own paper on the pollination of several species of Phasophyllum published 
in 1940 is not mentioned although it is not without its interest as a con- 
tribution to Australian orchidology. 

However, to mention such trivial errors and omissions serves but to 
rmphasize the care bestowed on both the preparation and publication of 
the book. It is a creditable production and well worth a place on the 
shelves of anyone at all interested in Australia's unique flora and, of tours*, 
especially to the orchid lover. By present-day standards it is by no weans 

(ltCIIUIS ()T -t»C WkST, hy Rica Ericltson; 1951. 1119 m>. wild illitsir<ilinn« by the 
author including 21 <rr>iotir and S black and white plaits will) 4 lignres, 9|li « 
iliu, in buckram boards. P»*crson. Btokerislia Ply. J. id , Penh. Price ^S/-- 

* I A Ravtowl 

By l.M.W. 

The author, Mr. V. N. Serventy, was one of the members of the Aus- 
tralian Geographical Society's Expedition which visited che area in 1950. 
This is the first part published of the full report. Tt is valuable, not only 
because it lists and discusses the birds found on this expedition, but Rives 
a comprehensive, historical review of, and previously unpublished, reports 
on the birds found by earlier visitors. 

Mr. Serventy 's remarks on the diminishing numbers of the Cape Barren 
Goose (Ccreo/>sis novv-hollmtdice) arc disturbing, and it is hoped that 
stricter control on shooting will be established by the authorities, as he 

The report is well illustrated, fully indexed, and has an excellent 
detailed map of the Archipelago. Published by the Australian Geographical 
Society, £$ pag-:s, paper covers, price 3/6. 

The Victorian Naturalist 

VoL 69 — Ko. 4 AUGUST 7, 1952 No. 824 


The monthly meeting of the Club was held at the Ivational 
Herbarium on Monday, July 14, 1952. The President, Dr. 
Chattaway, was in the chair, and about 120 members and friend?, 

The following new members were elected by ihe meeting — As 
Country Members, Mrs. C. N. Southwell and Mr George E. J. 
Southwell, Iona P.O., via Bunyip. 

The President drew attention to the fact that Mr, J. H. Miller 
and Mr. L. Cooper had been elected as honorary members of the 
club. Mr. Cooper, unfortunately, was not able to be present at 
the meeting, but she presented Mr. Miller with a Certificate of 
Honorary Membership, at the same time pinning a bouquet of 
wild flowers in his buttonhole. Mr. Miller responded and thanked 
the Club tor the honoui conferred upon him, 

The President announced that Mr. George Coglull had now 
completed 70 years' continuous membership of the club, and as a 
mark of appreciation he was presented with a small framed illum- 
inated scroll which had been prepared by Mr. li. P. Dickins. He 
was also presented with a buttonhole of wild flowers. Mr. Coghill 
suitably responded. 

The lecturer for the evening, Mr. Norman "Wakefield, took his 
audience with him on an extensive tour of far Eastern Victoria* 
describing the flora and physical feature-, of the country and illustrat- 
ing his remarks with a fine series of pictures and reminiscences. 

The editor of the Victorian Naturalist, Miss lita Watson., said 
that a special issue of the The Naturalist., dealing with the present 
position of the Lyre Bird in Australia, would be published in the 
near future, and that the Ingram Trust had contributed £100 
towards the cost of this issue. 

The President announced the receipt of a donation of £5 from 
Mr. Hanks, and one from Dr. Wettenhall for £5/5/-, towards 
the funds of the club, and expressed her gratitude on behalf of the 
club for these contributions. She also thanked Miss Raff for the 
gift of four new books. 

Attention of members was drawn to the new screen, pu> chased 
recently, which was used this night for the first time. 

Mr. Burston drew attention to the fact that the report of the 
Parliamentary Standing Committee on National Parks had now 
hecn published, and Mr. Ros Garnet, amplifying his remarks, 
referred to the fact that the Government was preparing legislation 

40 iui'ld !\' t Club J'raccedut.ot [_ £,j ^ 

to implement the r<;coir»nit:i)(iationS of the General Council He 
suggested that, as soon as it was known what lorin the proposed 
legislation would take, that Club Members should seriously con- 
sider this, and if it. did not conform with, the ideas of the Club on 
the matter, they should interview or write to their local Parlia- 
mentary Members on the subject. 


BOTAN V — Garden grown wild flowers by Messrs. Seaton, Brooks and 
Hanimit. Mountain Bauksia (B. ci)lhnit)-—Mf. JnmisOn. 

SHELLS — Cone shells- Miss Macfic. Two Pearly Nautilus Shells, 
one u) natural stale, and the oilier after acid hath treat meat; a miniature 
Pearly Nautilus (treated with acid), an Operculum (cat's eyes) in silu, 
and two loose ones, all from Pacific Islands — Miss Edith Raff. 

FOSSILS — Fossil leaves in sandstone JYom Lookout Hill, Airey's lute'.- 
Mr. Baker. 

BIRDS — Body of Eastern Suinebill found in garden—Miss Bryning. 

MISCELLANEOUS—Photogntphs of Mt. Buffalo, also sonic old photo- 
graphs (if Club members — Miss W'igiiii- Two volumes on Svviss National 
Parks— Mr. Popovic, 

Gcneiol Excursions: 

Saturday, August 16— F.hhaiu, Subject; Botany. Leaders: Botany Group. 
Take IS a.m. Eltham train. Bring one meal and a snack. 

.Sunday, August 31- l.augwnrrm. F.xcursion to Mr. E. J. Rush's property, 
Robinsons Road. N.eslrs bus leaves Batman Avenue at 9 a.m., returns 
to city approximately 630 pan. Bring two meals. Bookings, 7/6, ivhh 
Air. K. Atkins, Botanic Gardens, Snulli Yarra, S.E.L 

Saturday. September 6- -Afternoon walk from Hcatbmont to Bayswatcr. 
Subject: Botany. Leaders: Botany Group Take 1.38 pin. Fern Tree 
Gully train, alight Heatlunout. 

.Saturday, Sepu-mbei 13 — Altenioon walk from South Morang to Diamond 
Creek. Subjects-' Birds and Botany. Leader. Mr. R. Ferguson. Take 
\2A2 p.m. Thomastown train from Princts Bridge, then rail motor to 
South Moraiig, 

Preliminary Notice: 

Saturday. October 11— Sunday, October \2. The arrangements for a week- 
end excursion to Maryborough will br amioiinocd at the next general 

.Sunday, October 19 — Parlor i:uacn excursion to Musk and Bullarto. L««der\ I 
Bendigo Field Naturalists' Club. Coach loaves Batman Avenue 9 iiJw., 
returning to city approximately 7 45 pan 

Group Fixturef; 

(Al Royal Society's Hall, unless olbciwise stated) 
Monday, August ^5 — Botriny Discussion Group, 8 p.m. 
Tuesday, September 2 — Geology Discussion Group, H |i.m. 

Nc»e. — Children under 15 half fare on but trips, 

Khxxkvh Avkixs, Excursion Secretary. 

All members interested ore osfced to n»»et Mr. Ailms, Excursion 
Seeretoiry, or the «lose «( the meeting on August 14, to discuss quesjioo 
or trunspuit cotts, etc. 

*"££'' ] Gii,l. E D. On (hr Aft <>i Ih'dinr.k, Mclboiitm -Ltlydetc M 


By Kumhxii D (hi.i.. ha., R#* 


Diplograpfids from Diamond Creek lllaeuids from 'icmple- 
stowe and North BSjfViiyfr. ard Mrinnfj-raptus from Warrandytc 
throw light on the structure of ihe poorly fossiliferous bedrock 
between Melbourne and Lilydale. 


"Highly fossili itrons rocks of Upper Silurian age characterize 
the Melbourne district., while equally fossiliferot'S rocks 61 Lower 
Devonian age characterize the Lilydale district to the east, but the 
intervening twenty miles is almost uufossihlcrous. The general 
structure is an amiclinorium (Selwyn 1855-1S56, lutsou 1911, 
Junncr 191 3, Xicholls 1930. Gill 1942). but there appears to be 
such ccoiogtcal change laterally that there is no repetition ot the 
fossiliferous Melbourne strata between there and Lilydale. A 
great deal of rime has been spent by the writer m the past twelve 
years endeavouring to find index fossils between Melbourne and 
Lilydale, but worm tubes, unidentified fragments ot shells and 
crinoid columnals are all that have resulted. Some of the fragments 
and poorly preserved material may assume meaning when mote 
>s known of our palaeunlology Work an crinoirl enrumnals shows 
they have stpfltigrabftie value., but the study is not far enough 
advanced to throw light on [b.e. present problem. However, there 
have come, recently 10 the National Museum specimens which 
have thrown light on the age of the bedrock - between Melhoiirnc 
3 rid Lilydale., ad an account of is now given, 

DJI'LOCKAPTIUS fuom Diamond Ckisiik 

"An intcrcsling find." wrote junner in 1913 (p. 327), "was the 
discovery of grapiolites in black pyrjtic. shales from the Diamond 
Creek mine,. Dr Hail has kindly examined these, and he has 
informed me that borh Cliinacayraptits and JJipioc/m.ptus are repre- 
sented, hut he says there was not sufficient evidence to enable their 
precise age to he determined." .) miner's specimens have been 
found at the University, but the marcasite in them has so oxidized 
thai they are barely determinable. However, confirmation of 
J aimer's record has now been made, Recently the National 
Museum acquired the palaeontologieal collection of Dr G. B, 
J'litchanl, and in this are poorly preserved diplograptids in a 
similar matrix eollecied by Dr Pritchard from the Diamond 

* r;il.n7',Mi!olo,»i=,i, National Museum, Melbourne. 

42 Gill, E. D., On the Age i>] fltoft&rifc, AJelbomnc-Lilydalc [ V $jjj *£ u 

Creek mine. A map showing the locality accompanies the speci- 
mens, which are now rcg. nos. P 15,426-15.429. The 
are preserved as whitish films on dark-jjrey to black slialey &ilt- 

After studying these specimens, the locality- was Again visited, 
and it was noted that in the spoil lieaps oi the mine there was- 
very little of this particular rock, and it was found generally a 
long way from the shaft, suggesting that it came from well down 
the mine Keilorites was collected, but no other determinable 
fossil. Taking into account trie depth of the mine, and the direction 
of the workings, it is thought that the graptolitic shale must have 
come from beds that outcrop very near the crest of the Teinple- 
stowe Anticline, These are the oldest rocks outcropping in the 
anticlinoriuni, 35 Selwyii (1855-1856) showed and later investiga- 
tions have confirmed. The diplogiaptids indicate an age older 
than Middle Silurian ; they could be Lower Silurian 01 Orjoviciati, 
hut in view of the general sequence a Lower Silurian age is the 
more likely (cf. Thomas and Keble, 1933, p. 74). 


North Balwvm 

A solitary illaenicl trilobite w<is found by Dr. J. T. Jutson in a 
quarry "between Heidelberg and Templcslowe,'' and was clescrihed 
as Ilta-entis jittsoni by Chapman (1912). At that time it was the 
only Utaenid trilobite recorded from Victoria. Dr. Jutson has 
obliged mc with more precise information concerning the locality 
from which the specimen came. It is a quarry at a bend in Bulleen 
Road, on the east side, half a mile south of Manuiughani Road> 
Military Map Ring wood Sheet 1935 grid reference 114,419. 

The holotype {Sal. Mas reg. no. PI 2. 299) is a rather poorly 
preserved blind trilobite 3.5 cm. long and 18 cm. wide, with 
bumastoid cephalic furrows, traces of a very narrow cephalic- 
border, ten thoracic segments, with an axis half the width of the 
thorax, and a pygidiurn with comjwiratively brnad border. Both 
cephalon and pygidiurn are inflated, but the cephalon more so than 
the pygidiurn, This trilobite is not strictly an Illomus. 

In September 1949, Mr. L, M. Fryer presented to the National 
Museum an illaenid trilobite excavated during the laying at sewer- 
age pipes at 14 Hill Road, North Balwyn. Melbourne, in 1939. 
This specimen is figured in Plate 1, fig. 1. t ils not well preserved, 
but the follow iug features have been noted. Carapace S.5 cm. 
long in one plane, i.e. not following the contours of ihc test , 3 cm. 
wide across the middle of the thora.\. Cephalon smooth, ttmud, 
the highest part as preserved being about 7 mm. above the plane 
uniting the anterior and lateral margins. Eyes absent. Dotsal 
furrows bumastoid. The periphery of the cephalon is so poorly 


Pi mi I 

; ^8)1 

Fig. 1. — llhicimx nf'L jutsoni Chn\niv,\i\. Xut. Mus. ri-f», im, [' 14.719, 
from Xortli li:il\vvn, Melbourne. \_'. 

Fig. 2. — Monograptus aft. priodon ( Rronjjuiart i. Xat. Mus. rvg. 
no. P 14,752, part of slab from Williams' Quarry, Warratuh'te, .\2, 



J Gut.. E. D, Of li'c Affi- of Btdrock, Melbouroe-LiivdaU A3- 

preserved that the presence or absence of a border cannot be 
established. Thorax- with nine segments visible, and well developed 
axial furrows, The axis is half ihe width of the thorax, f'ygidinm 
smooth, luirud, but Jess so than the ccphalon, its highest pari rising 
about 5 mm above the plane uniting the posterior and lateral, 
margins. Axial furrows ahsent, A border aveiaging 3 mm is 
present, with line incised lines on the ventral surlaee These arc 
only preserved on the right side of the pygiduun. where they show 

i as sub-parallel line* .-sweeping in towards the inner boundary of 
the border. A cross-section of the border would generally inter- 
cept hve of these lines, each of which is of the order of a tenth 
of a millimetre wide. 

This specimen (Nat. Mus. reg. no. Pi 4,719) may be called 
fflttgMffl a ft. jutsoni because it is very similar to it, but it di Iters 
in size and the lines on the pygidia] border appear to be different. 
Noting that the above illaenids did not correspond with any' 
described genus of these trilobitcs, the writer communicated with 
Dr. A A, Opik. who has been studying the illaemds of the 

I Illaenvf Band at Heathcote [vide Thomas, 1937), and he informs 
me that he lias referred both Jllaenus paiom and the Heathcote 
fossils to a new genus. 

The illacnid from North Balwyn comes from the Tcmplcstowp 
• Anticline (tide map, Nichnlls. 19-50. while the bolotype of 

stltaems jutsoni comes from the next anticfine wesL, but it is not 

■ thought that there is any great difference in age between them. 
The presence of these trilobitcs proves an age earlier than Upper 
Silurian (Ludlow), and in view of their similarity to rbe rr llohites. 
of the Ulaemts Baii'l at Heathcote., a similar age is probable Dr. 
D. E. Thomas, informs me that graptolhe evidence shows {his baud 
to be high in the Lower Silurian (Llandovery). 

From this same area Chapman (iyH, p. 215) recorded Choneter 
nwlb'iurncnsis. Chonerids are good index fossils, and so this 
specimen was investigated. It was collected by Mr. Cltapman 
from '"Balwyn. near Tcrnplestowc," and this locality, he informed 

. me, is the hank of the Koonung Creek, just east of Bullccn Road 
(Military Map. Rmgwood Sheet 1935, grid reference 115,410). 
The specimen is National Muscauct reg. no. P 15,529. and was 
presented .50:3:10. It is a fragment of a hrachiopod, with plee- 
tambonitid prosopon. Also in the National Museum are some 
fossils (reg. nos, P 15.530-15,535) from "Koonung Creek, Heidel- 
berg." collected by Mr. P. C'osbie Morrison, and presented 
22:6;20. Upon enquiry, it is learned that this is the same locality 
as that from which Mr. Chapman's specimen came. From Mr. 
Morrison's fossils it is possible to say that all the specimens repre- 
sent a new species of Plectodonta. 1 his genua occurs throughout 
the Siberian and into the Lower Devonian in Victoria, but the only 

species so far described is Pleciodonla- hipartiia (Chapman 1913. 

.44 Gill, E. b, 0m the Atu of Bedrock , Mtlbounic-Lilydalc [ 

Vict. Nut. 

vol. ee 

■Gill 2950). Fleeted 'outa has a similar long range in Europe 
(Kozlowski 1.929, p, 1 17). The Pleciodanta. from Koonung Creek, 
'however, is certainly not -P. tripartita, -for its lacks the characteris- 
tic repartition and Iras different muscle scars. No further strati- 
graphical information can he obtained from these fossils until the 
.succession of Plectodonta species in Victoria has heen studied. 

Monogkaptus fjjom Wahr.anotte 
Mr. -Paid Fisch, of Doncaster, noted what looked like graptolitcs 
•in a piece of ornamental stone delivered to a friend's place. Learn- 
ing where the stone came from, he endeavoured to find betler 
specimens, but without result. Mr. Fisch kindly reported this 
-occurrence to m& and presented the specimen to the National 
Museum (reg, no, P 14.752). ft is. a slab of brownish-grey 
siltitone from Williams'. Quarry, Warrandyte, the precise position 
.of which' is shown in text figure 1 , Although this matrix could be 


48° W QUARRY /S»3^ 
N 30* E * y J jf 

H 25' £ QUARRV -K^ 




OUA^PY 72' t 
U 20* E 



readily matched in the quarry, further specimens covtid not be 
found in spite of a long search by Museum staff. The co-oper- 
ation of the quarry owner. Mr. V. Williams, was sought, and after 
some, months M'r. Williams kindly brought another piece of rock 
to the Museum which showed signs of Mo not/ rapt ns. but even 
more poorly preserved. However, this was enough to confirm 
the original find. Part of the specimen found by Mr. Fisch is 


ID.) 2 

Gn.i , £.. 11., On the At,:' »\ Bedmcl,, M^bomnc-Uiydoh 45 

figured (Plate f, fig. 2). Dr. D. E Thomas kindly examined the 
Munogiapius and expressed the opinion that it is like M. pnttdon, 
It is this form that occurs on the cast side oi the Lilydale syndme 
at Macclesfield (Halt 1914. Gill 1942. p 25 I . and m the Kilmore 
• disttict north of Melbourne (Harris and Thomas 1937). 

The presence of Monocpnplin proves, of course, that the bed 
from which il came is older than I. ale Silurian (Upper Ludlow), 
and if the f'jrni i? J'/. pnoHon the age is piobabiy Middle Silurian 
(Weiilochj. but Could he older (lilies and Wood 191.3. p. 420) 
The bed is nlniost on an anticline. 

The finding of Moitugmpfus at Warrandyte raises the question 
•of the age m tbc imperfect fossils recorded by the writer in 1942 
from a conglomerate al Warrandyte South, It was stated then 
(p. 22) thai "This conglomerate is considered to be possibly the 
base of the type Yeringian Series. '' 'Hie conglomerate is probably 
higher straiigr.tphkally than rhe Movcgrnptiis bed, but not very 
much so. In a symposium on the Silurian-Devonian Boundaiy in 
Australia,, held at the Hobart meeting oi A,N Z.AA.S. in January 
1949 Ihc writer Slated that increased knowledge of our faunas 
decreased confidence in this "'possible base" of the Yeringian. 
because it ix found that earlier determinations have far too wide a 
connotation. 1 1 was pointed out (hat the lowest clear palaeon- 
tological horizon in the Lilydale succession is locality 19 on the 
Brushy Creek scarp (vidr Gill 1940), where \'<)lvnoflio occurs. 
The species of this genus are present m numerous localities in Vic- 
toria and Tasmania (Gill J950, 1952), and m every case where 
other fossils of straiigraphieal value are piosenl they are of 
Ycringian affinities. 

David and Browne ( 1950) WWffr. "Gill, examining fossils, from 
near the top of the mmlstones. found ihey iududed eight species 
in common with the Baton RiveT beds ol New 1 Zealand, and on the 
strength of this placed Ihc whole series in the Lower Devonian. 
•On the other hand the has nineteen of its 259 species 
in common with the Melbournian Senes, and there are at least 
twenty-one species in common with the Htune Series, and not less 
than twenty-five, on present identifications, wilh the Silurian beds 
of New South Wales as a whole'' (p 209). The first of the above 
statements >s inaccurate, and the second one misleading. The 
Devonian age was bas^d on the presence of Devonian forms, and 
on the evidence to show that "in part at least these beds can be 
conelated with the Baton River beds of New Zealand" (p 47). 
The author did not "on the strength of this place the whole, series 
in the Lower Devonian " The ronglon leratc. at South Warrandvte 
■was indicated ns "possible the base m the ty|je Yeringian Series,'' 
and the uncertainty of the fossils stressed The conglomerate was 
gistn as a tentative hfijw by analogy with the basal conglomerate 
of the Wa|halla synclinorium, and what the inadequate palacon- 
tological materia) suggested. 

46 Gill, E. D_ On thi Age of Bedrock^ Mclhatimc-UlyMc i 

Vict. K»«- 
Vol. *9 

The second statement is inadequate, because based on old deter- 
minations that are of very limited value because. Too generalized. 
In all cases I have investigated of Lilyrlale fossils carrying the 
names of Yass fossils, the names should not be applied. The general 
.similarity of faunas indicates nearness pi age, but the difference* 
show the Lilydale beds on the whole to be younger, because the 
forms are. biologically more advanced (Gill 1945, p. 13.1; 1948fl> 
p, 12; 194S&, p. 22; 1951). 

In the writer's opinion, the following procedure is needed lor the 
clarification of our Silurian-Devonian sequences en Australia: 

1 . Kvidence to consist of fossils from precisely described { and 
prelerably mapped) localities At present it is nrit even known 
from which bed some type specimens came. 

2. The fossils to be numbered specimens in a public collection,, 
where chey can be studied by Anyone wishing to review tbc 

3. Authors to indicate clearly what stradgr'aphical horizon lliey 
acccpt as the base of the Devonian. The present writer accepts- 
the has^ uf the Ludlow Bone Bed oi the Wdsh Borderland ?.s- 
the base of the Devonian (Gill 1950, p. 2.38). 

Provisions 1 and 2 ensure the- objectivity of the palaeontological 
evidence, and i ensures the objectivity of the stratigraphical 


Chapman, F., 1912: "Mew Or Little Known Victorian Fossils in the National 

Museum," Pi, xiv "On Some Silurian Trilobitw." Proc Rfty, Sac. flfi. 

24 '293-3(10. 
Chapman, F„ 1 01 3 : Ibid I'l *vi. "Some Silurian Dcadi>i|jnda. " Ptqc /? w -y. 

Snc. Via: 26:99-113. 
Chapman, F, 1914: "On the PalaeoutoIoKv of the Silurian iif Victoria" 

A.A.A.S. Report, Vol. xiv. pp. 207-235. 
David, T. W. £., and Brown?, W. R„ 1950: "The G«ology of the C.'*n- 

monwealth of Auslralu." 3 voli^ 8vci London. 
Elks G. L., and Wood, E. M. Jfc, 3913: "A MoiioRvaph of British Grnplo- 

Ines," Pt. jx. Pa!, Snr. ¥ftn-. 1912: 41^-4,% 
Gill, E. D. ; 1940 "The Silurian Kocta of Melhoume and Lilvdale." Proc. 

Ray. Sac. Vie. 52:249-261. 
Gill E. ,D., 1942: ''The Tic.lmcss and Age of the Type Yeringian Simla. 

Lilydale, Victoria." Ibid. 54:21-52. 
Gill, E. D., 1945; "Cbonctidac from the Palaeozoic Rocks ol Victoria 3ni 

Their Stratigraplhcal Significance" Ibid. 57:125-130. 
Gill. E. D„ 1948"- A Npw Trilobite from the Yeringian (Lower OrvO"' • 

Rocks of Kinglake. Victoria. !b\d 59:8-19. 
Gill, F. D., 1948k "A Gens of Dalmdmtid Tjiiobiles," Jtwii-mut I'ruu- Kor. 

Sot. N.SH'' 82 16-24. 
Gill, E. D., 19,50; 'Trehmmary Account of the Paleontology and PaUeo- 

ecoloey of the F.ldou Group Formations oi the Zcehan Area, Tasmania." 

l'np."& 1'rcc Roy. Sot. Tas. for 19*9, 231-258. 
Gill, E. D., 19Sl ; "Revision of McCoy's 'i'rodromus' Ty»c< from <hr l.ily- 

dale and Killara Districts oi Victoria." Proc. Ray. Sc< . f'rVf. In niesa. 

M i^t ] "Wim.ts, J, H, Avoids /•',»,/ a>«i Pn>snm 4? 

-Oil), E. D« 1952: "Further Studies m Victorian Chnnrtidae (Palaeozoic 

Brachinpoda)." Ibid. In press 
Ciregory, J. W., 1903 : "The Hrathcotian— a Prc-Onlovician Scries— and its 

Distribution in Victoria." Ibid. 15:145-175. 
Hall. T. S., 1914: "Victorian Graptolitcj," Pi. iv. "Some New Or Little 

Kjiowii Species." /twt. »'? 104-118 
Jnllrtcr, N R, 1913: "General and Mining Geology «it ilie Diamond Creek 

Area." Jbki. 25 :323-353. 
Jtitson, J. T., 1911: "The Structure ami Geology of the Warrandyte Gold- 

field and Adjacent Country ." fbid. 23:516-554. 
Kodowski, R., 1929: 'Lei Gothlandieus d<*. la Podolie Polo- 

i>ai*e.'' 4vo Warsaw. 
Nirholls, A., 1930: "The Structural Features of the Bocks in jjlys 

Melbourne District." Prf,(- Rny. Sot- Vic. 42:129-133. 
Selwvn. A. R. C, 1855-1856: "Geological Su»vryo''s Rrpons." Parliawin- 

rory Ptipcrs, Government Printer, Mvlbourne, 
Thomas. D. E., and Keble, R. A., 1923: "The Ordovician &nd Sdurian Rocks 

of the Bulla- Sunbury Area, and Discussion of the Sequence of the 

Melbourne Are*."' Proc, ff««, Sac Vic. 45:33-84. 


By J. H. WtlLls 

In December, 1944 (Vict. jVrrt 61: 131-136) 1 pressed a few iiotC» Oil 
floral .«|inj, ■: and sundry attempts to classify them — » subject that still holds 
fascination for me. Recently (11th January. 1952) 1 entered the glass- 
bouse for dccoraiive tropical veptctation m the Melbourne Botanic Gardens 
and became aware at once of a subtle delicate perfume, like the spicy sweet- 
ness of stocks (Miitthiola) ; it was traced to a single unpretentious blown of 
lite West Indies aroid Spatlitphyllvwi co'Wffii^i"- T wonder how many 
different plants have Mock-like scents? The only other one known to me is 

.an endemic mountain heath of New South Wales. Epncris n\bvsln, and I 

-.shall never forget a visit to the sources of the Torus* and Kybeill rivers 
(south-east of Coonia) in October, 1948. This handsome thick-lcavod 
species, growing in association with the little i ubesceut Contoruut naim, ivas 
then in full bloom on sandstone bluffs at Kydra Trig poiol (flhnut 4000 
feet), its long rigid spikes of thick-set, waxy, pale cream liclle exhaling a 
most delicious amma of stocks. The discovery was of more than passing 
interest, since well-majked perfumes are unusual in the family P.pacridates, 

and especially so in the genus Epacrii. 

Bui 10 return to bUf fragrant aroid. I was impressed by the diversity of 

-odours manifest in this large faintly — from indescribable, nauseal iu,g stenches 
to transport iiurly beautiful perfumes. Probably no plant family on earth 

•cjchibits the whole gamut of flowei scents Iti the highly advanced 
Orckxdacs numbering some 20,000 species, we certainly find heavy, spicy, 

vanilla, fruity, lemony, musky and animal-like smells. At the other extreme 
of monocotyledons stands the comparatively simple, primitive. Ama'tn with 

■even greater contrasts in odour. 

Australia's share of the probable- 2000 aroid species in the world is almost 
infinitesimal — a mere seventeen, which, however, is twice the number 

-occturiiig naturally >n North America (excluding: Mexico); New 7.ealand 

has none at all. Of the 17 species (in seven genera) indigenous to Australia, 

-only lwc> spem odorous enough lo have evoked comment, vi*. .itocosio 
twirotrtiiifi and AnurrphopliaUus yalbra — both very sweet smelling. 
The group is essentially- Tropic, willi very rich development in South 

America Relatively few members arc cultivable, mil of doors In southern 

48 J I-1-, Armdi F,»tl ami Frmjrant [ V vu|. «!»"' 

Australia. Thus, without recourse to a well slocked hothouse, most of us. 
have little knowledge <A fhfe large, colourfni and inti Igdlng pJanl Caniily. 
The late Mr*. Edith Co'cman has written tin the pollmatipi; of a few familiar 
species, viz. Zmtiaewhia fihiopica (Via Nat, S3: 147. Jan.. 1M7), Arum 
iniliaim (i ft 53: )0'7, Fell,, I9J7) and Ahr.asin <i,1oki (7. t- 65: J40, T3,. 
Oct., 1948), while iii Arthur Mec's Children's Ihuyclntitrrfia [under "FIowts 
ami Their Visitors') is a magnificent series of colour pictures, showing - 
)«>w tiny nudges distribute flic pollen of the Cuckoo pint (' 4/nm "irfritl^if llWt) . 
The farm, colour and odour of many 3roid inflafe&tnB* aic rinuhfles* clnsidy 
linked with the visitations o» certain insects, which assure their jiol I ination. 
Discernible odours are absent from hundreds of specks, notably those in the 
RHinly South American rcoiis Awihurimii (more, than 5QQ species') where: 
co'our becomes the chief attracting medium 

Here is a selection of ten different aroids, half of wh.rh exemplify the 
pleasant and half the foul -smelling kind. All but imr.ibers 1. 3, 4, G 3iid 9 
may be wen in Mclho.irne. and the ritalimi. tial Map after most specie 
indicates a good colour portrait in O.irtis's liolamtni M<i(htziut. 


1. A'MORPHOPHALLUS TiTA.\UM I Western Sumatra). Bo!, t.fcj,- 


In Sumatran fungles occurs the Riant of this fantastic roups — a veritable 
wonder-plant whose inflorescence is must probably the largest in the whole 
Vegetable kingdom. Tts huge pleated spalhc f purple inside! reaches si's lent 
in height, arising from a tuber about IS inches in diameter and up to 601b. 
in weight. Mativcs call it hnrnr/n bmii/H (corpse flowei ), and the. allu>iuii 
is no! far to seek : A. titanum once bloomed in the tropical house at Frc/al 
Botanic Gardens, Kcw, where Sir Joseph Hooker (1890.) dcscnl>ed iu 
stench as "very powerful, suggesting a mi.sture of rotten fish and burnt 
sugar. " 

A. vampMnfutWt (tiul- M&$. 2&YI) 16 much smaller, but scarcely kss 
remarkable. Ife extends from India to Paima and the Pacific islands as far 
as Tahiti, but has not been found on the Cape Vark side ol Torres Strait. 
Thi$ is the l>u)i<jo-fiHii;/, subject of a note ie. the. P'lYfriWml I'voluTnliAi. 61 1 
21?. Apr. 1945. wherein Private R. Ryan claiined for it "tilt most nauseating 
steitch T have ever encountered" A. n?"f fi uf Imki-China is a stifl suialleT, 
less pretentious species whii h grows well ii: the open at Melbourne. Botanic 
Gardens. It? bipinnate leaves form an umbrella-like rosette at Uic top of 
a dark spotted stem and appear at a different season from the naked flowering 
scape. The wide funnel-shaped, liver-purple =pilh: i* up to a loot lonsr 
and fo' a shdt period aives out *m unpleasant, characteristically indolic 
odour — doubtless inviting to carrion files. 

2. DRALUNCO'LCS 1'IJLGARIS (Southern Europe, from to- 


A Mediterranean plant, icot infrequently grown m Melbourne Rardf.tts. it 
lias tall, boldly spotted stems and is most oi-uC-uiieuial. The long, narrow- 
frilled and inky-ppi pte (pMhe f lO two feet 'I ^rives out a smell of putrefaction 
that has been described by f.. H. Bailey [see figure in his, Cw 1 Horl, 1 • 1071 
()V5)i as a "terrifying' odour." The >iid. and now siandavdised, veniaailar 
name is 'stink-dragoji."' 

X MEUCOD1CEROS MUSCWORUS (Corsica, SUtdtljia *nd Balearic 
Is lands). 

Liitdlev (182-f ). describing this otiicr closely related Miuiicrrauesu sj>eci«S^ 
in Howard's fioi'm.ic.i/ Hcy'rslrr, where it if liea<i(i(t()lv iwrt'ayed i|) roloaf 

A i,j5y l ] WlOtJi J. H., ,1ra<.'.r 1'mil ami Pnif/Uhil 40 

(T.&J1), says thai the hairy purplish snathe reminded him of ''the luigc 
ilappiiip, ear of yiinr monstrous atnm.i1" li>: fuileci 10 perceive any carrion- 

like odour. But E. A. Bowles said of it. ''The most fiendish plant 1 know 
. . . it only exhales \t% .stench for a few hours after opening, mid during Mm 
lime l1 is better, to lool* at it through * telescope." f doubt it the specie? i» 
tvex gTOwn in Australia, but would much' like to maK- its acytiKintancc. 

4. SyMPLOCARt J US I'tF.TtDlJS (Nova Scotia to Florida, also in 
SU»VT»>„ Ifof.. Mag. 32>+, 

Of tuc eight aroids known from Canada And Hie Unit-id Stales, 'Skmitc 
Cabbage' is distinguished by a very hood-like- yellow spathc (about *i.\ 
inches tall), spotted mid streaked with purple so as to resemble a {riant 
Ci'wiifc shell standing on end; it secetei. a carrion odour, bin, if fcrtf Qfal 
of the plant be bruised, a strong skunk-like smell is given olT The 'Yellow' 
Skunk Cabbage/ only aruid to lie found m Pacific North America (from 
Alaska to California) is l.ysic.ltitttm cmcrictiuum, which \$ figured in Huhwuul 
Mapoz\itc 7937. under the name 'L. cavlhchaicoisr. Its spathes are entirely 
irmoii-ycllow and much nunc, open than in Symp(t}Cfl'l»iS. but ihey alio 
give oil a distinct odour as of skunks. 1 have seen no living examples of 
pil'ier sppries in Australia. 

$. TY1 J H0,\'UJM ROXBURGH!! ( Ceylon to AmbomrO. Rot Mot. 335> 
and 2324. 
A small trim plant with blackish spathe and very fpffc slender spadix, 
Curtis (1795) attributes lo it-"an iiitokialjle stench, '' lull examples flowered 
under g-asS in Melbourne Botanic Gardens had a curious penetratine: 
Mnei) — like 1 a mixture of mild carrion, Stockholm tar and molasses (if otie 
coukl itlutg'ne sucl* ?. blend I) There arc several indigunnng siwcio/.s of 
Typhiinium in north Australia, but we lack information as lo thei - ' arvwuas 
(if any) , ft will 1>p noted that, almost without exception, these aroids Willi 
highly objectionable odours share a d?.rk purplish coloration of the spalbe • 
does ;t simulate decayed flcsl" and serve as an additional optical cutictntCTil 
lo blowflies? 


6. AM0l?l J HO! J JiALLUS GALIiKA (North Queensland, beyond Cairns). 

The ip«?ci(.e epklKt is an aboriginal word (not an Anwaiii ot niis-- 
spelling of glabra, as might be suspected) .'jamboila' being another name 
applied by ihe Cape Yoi k natives. F, M. Bailey fin QntbttStsPd Flan a: 
Jr>%, T 76 ( IOOi?) J says, "inflorescence highly fragrant." and it f.« a 
to find in ibis genus or so many vdc-smcllinff incmlxrs one that is endowed 
with an agreeable scent, particularly as the species is endemic in our' 

7. ALOCAS1A ODOR A (Himalayas to Indo-Cliina and Formosa). )M, 

Mag. 3935, 

A very liardy adaptable plant with peveimiai trunk, its pollination o-as 
i J isi'ir:se.d by Mis. Coieman in October, I94S (P'i,:) AT/;/. 6"*' 140) Sii William 
Hooker said (1842.) ! "What is wautiugr ir. colour is amply compensated by 
l v s . - powerful ira.K ranee." I would place ihc se*iit as nearest to ihat of 
violets, but ii if even sweeier and more refined, not enusiiig, ''oifav'orj 
fatigue' J Dall;ichy. writing if our single native specie; A. tHfcttirrbtStt 
• the 'ainjcv-oi"). ascribed to ii a "sweet smell," bm did not riilcmpl to uehne 
ihe iraalitv of its perfume — nor lo my knowledge, has anyone else. A, 
iut\i'mr))iif,\ exlenns from t "! I.^oul In, N.S.W., to the Cookuwn fffiftOli C>f 
Norlli Queensland, its spatbes are white, rather than green, as in A, odcra, 

SO Wii-tis, J. H., Armiit Fan! and Fragrant [ y^, fi JJ " 

.«. ZANTliUESClUA yJlTfllOPlCA (coast region from >Jara1 to the 
Cap.; Peninsula, South Africa). Rot. Mii<j. 832. 

The familiar, extremely hardy White Culla I fly needs ^o« introduction. It 
•was naturalised on St. Helena before 1805, and' must have readied Australia 
•very early too — it lias broomr almost a feature of the dxinp. low-lying 
country scmroiniding Albany, Western Australia The delicate scent is 
aiot easy to define, but suggests certain true lilies or narcissus species, and 
lias also i\ slight lemony <|n.i!ii>. 

•9. PHtWDENDRON SFLLOVM (Southern Brazil to Paraguay). 7M, 

Man 6773. 

A (all tropical climber, its flowers anf. Mated by Sir Joseph Hooker 

(ISS4J to emit a "powerful aromatic odour, especially *\ night," Many of 

the dW Pltilofffiiidrmi species -are sccnled and several such Mocavt under 

•glass in the Melbourne Botanic Gardens. 

10. SPATHlPHyLLVM CAXNIFOLIUM (West Indies to Colombia.) 
Bot, Mag. 603. 

And so baci; to che charming flower which prompted these notes. Sims 
(18031 depicted its small spreading white spathe and creamy spadi*, noting 
that they diffused "an agreeable odour, 1 ' yet he did not identify the perfume 
as stock-lilce— perhaps that spicy (jua)ity is not always apparent. 

No dissertation on aroid odours would be complete without rcl'trotcc in 
-two species of economic importance Swollen green fruiting spodiccs of the 
Crrimati {Moustcra tklidosn) exhale a rich pineapple fragrance at malttrity 
and are reckoned as a delicacy among tropical fruits — Melbourne fruiterers 
offer them for sale in season. Hardly less remarkable are the enormous, 
curiously perforated leaves of this scrambler from Central America, which 
may be seen gi owing satisfactorily in the fern gully at Melbourne Botanic 
•Gardens. The Sweet-flag: (Arorus ctilawux) is an official OlH-U<orl<f -plant 
with strongly aromatic oil in its rhizotue and, to a (csser degree, in thr. 
leaves. It is. wideH' spread in swampy parts of boreal regions, including 
Britain, and wa* regarded by Linnaeus as the only truly .irnmatir plant 
to be found in high northern latitudes. 

Has anyone perceived other distinctive odours among representatives of 
lhc .Yntee*? 


tvery ipctimeo oi the huge red flWered Rose, or the West (F.ucolptux 
iinurocarpii) which I have, ever seen has been badly eaten by insects, and 
one Melbourne grower of this tree is said to spray his specimen mice a fort- 
night to prevent their ravages. Leaves of the same trees, when growing in 
the native state- hi Western Australia, an- also said ro be. frequently attacked. 

Recently, when I visited his property near S taw ell, Mr. G. A. Hately. who 
his about two hundred different species of cucalypts growing, expressed the 
belief that all of (he eucalypti with silver leaves are liable to be badly eaten, 
.and pointed to a plant ot JiiKatypfus desmonttenxis m support of litis Opinion. 

Can any reader con firm this belief, or sive a reason why silver gum leave? 
form such an acceptable part of an insect's diet? Incidentally, Ko«e o( the 
"West is the encalypl with very large dercralivr: fruits; a specimen Wkhi 
iOiic of Mr Hatelv's trees nieamred four indies across. 

— A.E.B. 

The Victorian Naturalist 

V|oL 69 — No. 5 SEPTEMBER 4, 1952 No. 825 


The monthly meeting of the club was held on Monday, 
August Jl, J 952. The president, Dr. Chartaway. was in the chair. 
and about 100 members and friends attended, including Mr, G. 
Southwell. -a country member from Bunyip. 

The following new members were elected by the meeting ; — 
Messrs. Frank Curtis, Rranislav Popovic, Chas. W, Boyes, F. C. 
Jackson, Misses Frances Forster, Tui Goto. Cath. Howden. 

Mr, P. F. Morris gave an interesting and informative talk on 
Australian fish, rays and crustaceans, illustrated by many slides. 

Guides are needed for parties of school children visiting tJie 
Badger Creek Sanctuary, leaving Melbourne by train at S 30 and 
returning by 4 p.m. Lunch would be provided for all guides- Tho<e 
able to help arc asked to give their names to the. Secretary. 

The President asked exhibitors to hand in written notes giving 
anything of special interest, about their exhibit, and giving its full 
common and scientific name, and their own full name. 


In presenting this i^sue ot the Victorian Naturalist, primarily 
devoted to a survey of the lyrebird, the Council gratefully 
acknowledges the grant made by the Trustees of the M. A. Ingram 
Trust, without which its production would not have been possible. 

The full life history of the lyrebird has been covered in deLail in 
earlier issues (JWpfc Nat,, Vol. LVII Nos. 10, 1 1 ; Vol. LIII No. 1) 
It was felt that a general review of the present status of the bml 
in each State in which it occures, and particularly how it had 
survived the disastrous bush fires of recent years, would be of 
value at this time. The description of how a few were caught 
and transported to Tasmania and their .subsequent history, is A 
particularly interesting story of an expet iment made in the effort to 
preserve this unique species. 

The Couneil is grateful to the authors who generously responded 
tci their request for contributions with articles and photographs. 

The notes by the late Tom Tregellas are from an unpublished 
manuscript in the possession of the Editor. 

52 W. B. Hitchcock— Classification oi <kc 1 wM [^ft^f 


By W. U. Hitchcock, National Museum, Melbourne 

The afhmties oi the lyrebirds with other members of the large 
Order Passeres were reasonably well established as long ago as 
1876 by A, H. Carrod (P.Z.S. London, j», 506-519), who pub- 
lished a series of brilliant papers on Passerine anatomy r with 
particular reference to the structure and muscle* ot the trachea 
(windpipe) and the syrinx (voice-box). 

Garrod [ibid, p. 507) suggested the terms Acromyodi and 
Mcsomyodt to distinguish the two major groups of song birds. 
In the former, which includes all the "normal" or "oscinine" 
Passeres, as well as the ''abnormal" lyrebirds and scrub-birds, the 
intrinsic muscles of the voice-organ are attached to both end of the 
bronchial semi-rings; in the latter, which includes such groups as 
the broadbiUs, oven-birds, pittas, manakins and cotingas, the 
muscles are attached to one of the. ends or to the middle- of the 
bronchial rings. This broad classification, with slight modifica- 
tions, is accepted by modern taxonomists (eg. Mayr and Amadon, 
A?mr. Mns;NoV;'\9S\, no. 14%), 

The two species of lyrebirds, together with the two scrub-birds, 
therefore comprise the Suborder Menurae within the Order Pas- 
seres. Their principal anatomical distinction lies m the possession 
of but two or thee pairs of syrinx muscles, as compared with five 
to seven pairs in "normal" Acroinyodian PasseTes. This may be 
taken as indicative of their primitive nature 

Turning now to more obvious external features, the lyrebird is 
unique in having 16 tail feathers, and the form of these is quite 
remarkable — at lea"st ill the adult, male Superb Lyrebird, The 
two outermost feathers have a, broad inner web and a very narrow 
outer web, and their combined shape is suggestive of a lyre. The 
inner web, apparently, is notched at regular intervals by spaces 
that, according to the angle at which they are viewed, seem to be 
black or transjarenr. This effect is actually due to the barbs at 
I hose spaces being devoid of barbules. The middle pair of rectrices 
is likewise unusual. These have no outer web ana the inner web 
Wry narrow; near their base they cross each other and then 
diverge, bendiaig round forwards near their tip. The remaining 
12 feathers, except near the base, have few barbs and appear 
hair-like. All the rectrices have very strong shaits. 

Indicative of its terrestrial habits, the lyrebird has very strong 
legs and feet, with long, nearly straight claws. Correlated with 
these are the strongly ossified tendons of the legs. 

The present distribution of the Superb Lyrebinl is a limited 
one — geographically and ecologically. It ranges fiom Stanthorpe 
in southern Queensland, through New South Wales (east of the 
Divide) to the Dandenong Ranges in Victoria. Typically, it is a 
bird of die fern gullies, but it occurs sparingly on die outskirts of 
jUch habitats wherever the environment is suitable, 

Sept. "I 
19S2 J 



54 JR. T. 1 ITTtRJOWNS— Sfolllfollt V(V(!S "t« I .yf cbiYxU P^jSw^mf' 


By K. T. Lmt.EioiiKS 

It is natural, perhaps; That any notes \ am able lo contribute 
regarding the lyrehird, whilst covering a period of twenty-seven 
years, Will yet be in general terms and wilt lack many scientific 
details which, in such a period should have become available. The 
truth is that I have been concerned, mainly, with publicising the 
accomplishments of the species and have studied deeply only such 
aspects of lyrebird character an<l behaviour as have be.c.n likciv 
to be of assistance in various forms of photography and in sound 

The most important matter for consideration, it appears to me, 
is the present numerical status of the species throughout its limited 
range. This aspect is ot particular interest to anyone who remem- 
bers that in the early twenties the lyrebird, and. in fact, the koala 
and the platypui a» well, hud reached a dangerous state where 
extermination easily could have followed. Such an utt satisfactory 
position undoubtedly arose from (he lack oi appreciation by Aus- 
tralians of their remarkable fauna. In that era it was fashionable 
to destroy any wikl creature, and the. merit of the achievement was 
in direct proportion to the rarity of the victim. 

It is the more pleasant, therefore, to be able now to voice the 
Opinion that the lyrebird., at any rale, is safe for an indefinite 
number of future years. There can be no doubt of the reason for 
the change. The more or less natural hazards to lyrebird survival 
have actually increased because more forests have been cleared, 
forest fires have been more frequent and foxts more numerous; bul 
matt himself, as the principal danger, has been converted. Die 
lyrebird is now protected by public .sentiment much more effectively 
than would be possible by drastic laws alone. facts bear on the first point F wish to make. The awaken- 
ing of public interest was neither accidental nur immediate, ft was 
the result of many years <jf pioneering work by Tom. Tregellas. He 
lived amongNt lyrebirds for weeks at n time, he studied their habits 
and he photographed diem. He used the meagre facilities then 
available to spread the knowledge he bad gained and he embarked 
on a one-man crusade to arrest ihe drift towards the extinction 
of such an important natural possession. Let us make no error 
as to the underlying reason for the present satisfactory status of 
lyrebirds, and let us realize how much greater were the difficulties, 
thirty years agu, of studying and photographing the species. No 
statement mi tlus subject could he complete without inclusion of 
a tribute to the work of Tom Tregellas. 

Lyrebirds at" Sherhrooke. twenty-five miles from Melbourne. 
have received more public attention perhaps than those nf any other 
area, and the increased interest in the species throughout the 


Plate II 












1' H. T. Littiejohns. 

Male lyrebird in full display on mound. 


R. T. LrriiijoHNA— Rfm&t Notes on Lyi thirds SS 

remainder of its range has resulted, to some extent at any rate, 
from the popularity of the Sherbrooke birds. In this area, thirty 
years ago, tourists climbed the slippery path, to "The Falls" with- 
out becoming conscious of the fact that the forest rang with the 
finest bird-song to be heard in Australia It meant nothing to the 
tourist, and it is doubtful whether one in fifty even "heard" the 
song. No one cared that, for a period of years, scarcely a young 
lyrebird was reared in tiie Sherbrooke area because at various 
human agencies. At the same time lyrebirds hail no reason to 
trust humans and it was extremely difficult to. obtain more than a 
fleeting glimpse of them 

Now the position is entirely different Almost every visitor tn 
the forest is there for the expressed purpose of seeing and hearing 
lyrebirds and, on the other hand, lyrebirds have become accustomed 
to the presence of humans Because no harm has come to them as 
a result of such association, they arc now approachable to an extent 
that would not have been considered possible in the light of 
experience of thirty years ago. The effect of publicity and of public 
interest, therefore, has been twofold. As humans have become 
more deeply appreciative of lyrebirds, the latter have become pro- 
gressively more trustful of humans Tn areas where humans are 
seldom seen, lyrebirds maintain their natural distrust of them. 

This natural distrust would appear to be broken down 50 far as 
the female lyrebird is ronceroed while she is attending to a chick 
in the nest. At this time she will proceed with the feeding of 
her offspring in the close presence of humans. However, at other 
times she is more secretive than her mate, so that her action when 
Ihe. chick has hatched may be credited more correctly to a strong 
maternal instinct rather than to supreme trustfulness. When human 
intruders are leaving Ihe vicinity of a nest, the female frequently 
will follow them in a manner generally regarded by the intruders 
as indicating extreme friendliness. Personally 1 do not believe 
that this widely practised habil is based on any desire at aJl to be 
close to humans. 

It is not realized generally that the female lyrebird is a capable 
songster. Usually, but not always, her singing is more subdued 
than that of her mate, but much of her mimicry is, I think, more 
faithful. One female lyrebird at Sherbrooke earned for herself 
the title of "the singing hen.'" Her song was of such volume often 
that, from a distance, one credited it to a male. This bird also 
performed the characteristic "dance" with the tail reversed and 
depressed over her head. It must be conceded, however, that the 
female of the species is not a tegular songster, probably because of 
the claims on her leisure made by the unaided tasks of uest-building, 
incubation of the egg and feeding of the chick. 

Because the male lyrebird provides most of the spectacular 
sights and sounds calculated to spread the fame of the species, it 

It, T. LmruyoHys — Random Notes on Lyrebirds [ v v ' 

Vtrt. Nuu 
til fill 

fallows that most of the photographic efforts of the last twenty- 
seven years have been devoted to him. As other observers have 
dealt fairly fully with the display and the song, it remains hut trt 
touch upon a few points which have impressed trie. 

Within the shictly limited powers of reasoning which r consider 
animals posses?., the lyrebird must be credited with more than 
usual intelligence. Each individual is somewhat of a ''personality," 
with characteristics and habits which identify him amongst his 
fellows. This is probably the reason why observers are tanpted 
to bestow pet names on individuals Personally I consider that 
pet names are unsuited to genuinely wild creature*. Nor am I able 
to agree with the opinion often seriously expressed that male 
lyrebirds dance or sing "because" there is a human audience. My 
view is that they perform "in spite of" the audience. The singing 
and mimicry make a really finished performance and one may [»c 
pardoned for believing, sometimes, that the singer is btriving alter 
dramatic effect. But 1 ;im. unable to believe that any animal", even 
a lyrebird, is able to comprehend what would constitute dramatic 
effect in the minds 01 humans 

Nevertheless there ore aspects of die performance which clearly 
art; not accidental. The song is not entirely automatic n.nd gives 
definite evidence of some degree of reasoning. Often when a male 
lyrebird is in full song he will break off in the middle of an item 
and will join in with uncanny anticipation to sing a duct, as it were. 
with the occupant of an adjoining territory. Similarly, the song 
may he inrerruprcrl while the singer mingles imitated notes of 
Crimson Kosellas with those of a flock' of these hirds which may 
fly overhead. Jn neither case can it be argued that the instinct of 
self -preservation is involved ;nid that the action is dierefure auto- 
matic. The singer had tn 'think" about his song. 

J'here is further evidence of superior intelligence when com- 
parison is made with other species. Several small birds, including 
the Mistletoe Rird, have been found to be governed ro a ridiculous 
extent by habit. A Mistletoe Bird which had become accustomed 
to feed its young whilst the latter were held in a human hand, con- 
tinued to fly on to the hand and to blissfully deposit food therein 
on several occasions when the hand held no chick, Experiment* 
along similar lines carried out at the nests of lyrebirds have pro- 
duced no Mich evidence of low IrietUality. 

Perhaps this superior intelligence has been responsible fur trie 
survival of many of the lyrebirds in the Sherbrooke area. The 
best-known and most photographed male bird there has occupied, 
for seventeen years to my knowledge, a territory at the forest 
edge where there have always been foxes. He has escaped this 
hazard in spite of the fact that, with regard to humans, his. natural 
distrust has disappeared. In the cases of less intelligent species 

**£ ] ' J '•* L* 1 * Tl Tbigellas— Rveulitiff 57 

a. relaxation of alertness with regard to humans often results in a 
fatal lack of alertness in respect of cats or other enemies, 

If any conclusions may be suggested by these fragmentary nolcs 
they arc; 

Thai, as a result of a belated awakening of public sentiment, 
lyrebirds have emerged from any danger nf extinction which can 
be (orseen. 

That credit for this state of affairs is due to Tom Tregellas. 

That, whilst the lyrebird is credited often with capabilities 
which it does not possess, it is stiJI, within the natural limitations 
to which animals are subject, a creature of a very high order of 


It is an interesting operation, this going to roost in the tree-tops. 
Though I have watched them scores of times at camp, there always 
seems a strange fascination about the manner of their going up 
in the fading light and I never tire of watchmg the ascent and 
listening to the accompanying remarks. The lyrebird is a poor 
ttyer buf a good jumper, and when he wishes to reach the tree-tops 
be combines one with the other with the happiest results. Uttering 
a preliminary and carrying call, he gives a mighty jump and flap 
and reaches the first limb. Pausing a moment, he repeats the 
operation and crosses to the other side of the tree to a higher limh, 
then on again till he reaches the top. He does not always roost in 
the blackwoods, though many of them are 80 feet in height, but 
volplanes across to a mountain ash and repeats the operation till 
he is at last anything up to 150 feet from the ground. 

When he is satisfied with his altitude he performs his toilet, 
pausing now and then to send out a parting salute to die dying 
day and at last settling down for the night. It has always been a 
niaivel to me why the bird chooses such small twigs on which to 
roost One would think a bird so weighty would choose a strong 
lateral limb on which to rest, but very often he goes right out to 
the end of the twigs where even a honeyeater would scarce venture 
and seems quite cuntented. Here is where the powerful claws 
stand him in good stead, as I have never known a bird to blow 
down at night, though convinced they spend many sleepless hours. 

The birds frequently eall at night time, and at first dawn come 
down to a lower perch and make further remarks, then jump down 
and begin feeding. As a rule they only partake of a light breakfast 
before displaying and calling on the mound, seeming to find it a 
matter of impossibility to pass a mound without giving vent to their 

—the late Tom Trecej.las. 

5R M SH.vW-ANn— Lyrebird in Tewunu'it [^Vot'ob 


By Michael Sharlanb 

In recent years Tasmanian bird observers have been able to 
enjoy the novelty o( Hearing the voice of the lyrebird in the forests 
of their chief national park, and, at times, tu watch the bird itself, 
for a number were introduced and liberated there between 1934 
and 1949, and a few have become established. 

In the period mentioned 22 birds were obtained from Victoria. 
One ot these died en route, another died on being released, the 
remains of a third were found in the park where it had evidently 
been killed by a Tiger Cat. Five birds were released in an area 
of thick forest at Hastings Caves, approximately 60 miles south of 
Hobarf, but all the others were liberated jti the Mt. Field National 
Park, some 50 miles west of Hobart. 

The object of introducing the species to Tasmania was stated 
by the sponsors to be to remove it from the danger of extinction 
by the fox., which was regarded as its special enemy in the eastern 
States of the Australian mainland, the fox being unknown in 
Tasmania. It was doubtless a worthy object, regardless of whether 
the bird was ever in danger of extinction in its own environment, 
and, in fact, it commanded considerable support from organisations 
and individuals interested in bird conservation. The Royal Aus- 
tralasian Ornithologists' Union paid for at least five birds from 
a special grant of £50 which had been made by an anonymous donor 
in 1926, and the remainder were cither purchased by the Tasmanian 
Government or generously donated by Mr. T. S. Nettlefold. 

Although there is evidence thai some of the birds are living stilt, 
there has been no systematic altempt to prove where acclimatisation 
has been successful or otherwise. There are various reasons for 
this. The extreme density of the forest areas where the birds 
were liberated and the difficult nature of the terrain, combined 
with the comparative remoteness of the localities known to be 
inhabited, have rather discouraged observation and search by all 
except those experienced in bush walking and the number of keen 
observers is Jew. Consequently reports are scarce and not altogether 
reliahle, and it is not possible at the present stage to determine 
whether any of the birds have managed to breed and rear their 

In June, 1945. the author found three used nests in a dense fern 
gully in the national parts about a mile from the point where birdi 
were liberated a few years before. One of these nests, situated on 
the base of a fern, contained an egg which, however, crumbled to 
the touch .and was .found to be quite dried and empty. The other 
nests were old and may have been used in previous seasons. The 
ground was liberally marked with fresh scratching* over a wide 
area where scrub had been 1 burnt, indicating that one. or a pair still 
inhabited the area. 


M. Sunt/LLAHi^Lyrebiril m Tasmania $9 

In June,' 1946, the author, visiting 'the 'same locality, found the 
foundation of a nest, but subsequent visits •showed that the budding 
was not proceeded with. 

The evidence of nest building is confined to the foregoing obser- 
vations, and although further visits have been made to this area 
and elsewhere in the park, and many scratching;* lucaied, no indi- 
cation of breeding has come to light. 

Curiously enough, none nf the five birds liberated in the Hastings 
Caves area has since been seen. No experienced observers, ot 
course, have visited this district, and it is possible that an investi- 
gation would prove that some birds were there still. Guides living 
on the spot, and casual visitors, have been asked to keep a lookout 
for them, but as yet no records have come to hand. The forest 
there is dense and usually very moist, and would seem to be suited 
to the habits of the bird. 

All that can be said at present is that of the 19 birds introduced, 
three pairs have become established hi and adjacent to the Ml. Field 
National Park. One of these has its territory well within the 
park, in Beech forest between the rive and six mile posts on the 
roadway leading from the park entrance to the highlands of Mt. 
Field Another pair lias selected territory near Crisp's hut, on 
die Adamsfield track, along the southern boundary of the park; 
and the third pair is at Risby's Basin, about five miles south of the 
Persistent reports stem to indicate that another pail is located 
near a sawmill concession close to Fitzgerald, outside the eastern 
boundary of the park ; but there is no evidence at all to show that 
this or any of the other known pairs is breeding in the localities 

Ihe local branch of the R.A.O.TJ. intends to carry out a com- 
prehensive search of the inhabited areas in order to determine if 
the bird is nesting successfully. Ignorance by hushmen and others 
of the habits of die bird, as well as unfamiliarity with call notes and 
type of nest, are factors which may account for the lack of positive 
reports regarding range and breeding. 

These peisotis have hitherto not known what to look for, what 
to expect to see or hear, nor have they always recognized, evidence 
when it was available. For example, on the visit to the park when 
the nest with addled egg was found in 1945, the author was accom- 
panied by two bushmen and a police trooper, all claiming some 
knowledge of birds. In single file they followed down a narrow 
wallaby pad through thick fern scrub, with the author in the 
rear. The three in turn actually brushed the side of the nest to 
pass between two fern stems and failed to recognize it tor what it 
was, and it remained for the author behind to locate it and demon- 
strate how easily its presence could have been overlooked. 

6f> D. FtTAV — Tronft rriii/j Lyrebirds to Tasmania fviiMn' 


By Davjd Fleay, West Burleigh, Queensland. 

At various times between 1940 and 1950 I have, at the request 
ot the Victorian Fisheries arid Game Department, undertaken the 
delicate and exacting task uf capturing lyrebirds and bringing out 
selected individual.* unbanned from their mountain faslnesses for 
qukk transport by tnf to Tasmania 

Such moves, involving careful planning, good co-ordination 
and the miuiinum of delay in transit have followed governmental 
approval of applications from the southern State where conditions 
are ideal, but the species docs not oceur naturally. 

It is gratifying to learn from periodical reports that our leathered 
proteges have not only settled naturally into happy lives, but are 
nesting successfully in this fox-free Slate. It seems only a pity 
that all did not go to the one National Park area so strengthening 
the hoM of a neiv species in a new habitat Should the transference 
of lyrebird-s witltin the State of Victoria ever be contemplated again 
it is to be hoped that none go to the rather unsuitable Wilson's 
Promontory, but rather, as Mr. Fred Lewis has suggested, to the 
Bcceh Forest between Apollo Bay and Princetown, where there is 
good lyrebird country 

Locations for the search and snaring of our splendid bush 
minstrels for Tasmania varied from the Toolangi- Blacks' Spur 
country through to Warburton (Victoria), and weeks at a time 
were spent wandering and working in the scented and impressive 
environment that is theirs in the mountain gullies beneath towering 
Mountain Ash giants. Periods when the birds were occupied 
with eggs or young were avoided for obvious reasons. While 
lyrebirds are widely distributed over this TooJsngi-Warburtoi! 
section, it is not always possible to find a sufficient concentration 
of them to snare successfully The great fires of 1939 incinerated 
even the food-nourishing humus in thousands of gullies, and it is 
to favoured areas spared that holocaust that one must turn. 

To describe each and ever> expedition involved being out of the 
question, this is an account of proceedings with one particular 
pair of birds secured in the Novembev-Dectvnber period of 1949, 
when Sir Thomas Nettlefold defrayed costs Of the undertaking. 
Stacked with gear, our old car eventually left good roads twenty- 
five miles from our borne at Badger Creek and ascended an old 
and bumpy timber-track winding ever upward as it skirted 
granitic mountain shoulders and crossed corduroyed shady creeks 
resonant with the "tuik-tink" of many bell-birds. We came to 
icsa on the site of a hut lung since demolished by fire, hut marked 
hy the rusty iron, broken china, etc., inseparable ftom such ruins. 

Camp was established Inside a clear creek, and already from 
the. slopes above came a faint familiar and ringing "Onolp-quolp!" 
Up there a cock lyrebird bad paused m his industrious raking of 

u55a ] ^- f Lt **"" Trmttftrrrng Lyrebird* to Tasmania (»l 

the forest floor and the bush resounded with his repeated chal- 
lenging notes. " With equipment slung on backs and fern book and 
hatchet in hand, we began' the plod, slash and push through the 
scrub to cut a track) up the mountain side. 

All was quiet among the aisles of tall smooth minks until very 
suddenly again, and from a hidden gully ahead, came the "Quolp- 
quolp!" or "Blick-blick !" of that same cock bird. Louder and 
clearer now the bird added a short session of "recorded music," 
tne laughter of kookaburras, the "Gumea-a-week" of the pilot bird, 
the sharp track of the whip bird, the shriek of swift-flying crimson 
parrut5, the cry of the wedgetail eagle and the favourite rich melody 
of the grey thrush. 

Quietly we began a descent towards the broadcaster's position, 
die aromatic scents of the gully coming up to meet us, but slipping 
and sliding were unavoidable and the lyrebird has keen hearing. 
A piercing "zing!" oi alarm and the concert was heard no more. 
The treefcrns closed in, but there were dim and cool ctoistcr-bxe 
passageways between their rough trunks. There was chaos where 
starkly bleached trunks had fallen at contused angles, relics of giants 
dead for many years Obviously the vicinity was a good place for 
snares for the whnle forest floor was newly scratched over, the 
rich yielding earth Irtshly exposed, and at the gully bottom there 
were narrow passes between logs, and an assortment of strategic 
positions. On rbc additional evidence of moulted feathers, quite 
a tew lyrebirds seemed to he in the habit of visiting this gully, and 
almost certainly a proportion of thein would be youngsters ranging 
perhaps from some four months to two or rhrce years of age. The 
difficult terrain of the lyrebird gully, and the "just-so" exactitude 
of building snares so that the bird is merely rethered and unin- 
jured in any way, takes au uncommonly long time so that, working 
until dark we rigged only twelve that clay Small fry such as the 
c-heeky Yellow Robin delighted in our activities and they darted 
constantly about Due's bauds picking up exposed Talhttis hoppers, 
wire worms and other delicacies. 

That night we camped at the car beside a gurgling stream with 
3. Boobook Owl "mopoking" pleasantly and restiully. Our nnly 
visitor was a big, woolly-furred mountain possum which trumpeted 
its distrust of the flickering firelight and the intruders from a 
nearby eucaiypt An early morning round of the snares revealed 
% totally untouched state of affairs, the hirds were suspicious and 
had not even disturbed the debris round about, 
, On the third morning things had begun to happen. From 
the evidence of torn-up earth and barked sapling butt at No. 1 
snare a lumbering wombat must have strayed in during the night 
and been put to some slight inconvenience before passing on. But 
as we rounded a gigantic log and came in sight of No. 3 snare a 
guttural squalling and screeching assailed our ears and a chocolate- 
brown bird flapped and jumped there. It was a fat and obviously 

(52 P. rr,ir.Av— Transferring lyrebirds to TMnWfo [ V vol's* 1 ' 

newly-caught hen lyrebird. It is vital to be close at hand When 
siicfi birds are captured, for their penetrating screeches are liable 
to bring- foxes on the run. Two other snares had been set oft 
and were mined by the struggles and strong teeth of short-eared 
possums. Odd patches of fur identified our nighi callers. 

Resetting and putting the snare-line in order preceded a return 
to camp, where the captured lyrebird was fastened in a roomy 
grass-padded tea chest. We then drove her hnme to Healesville, 
releasing her temporarily in a semi-dark shed with a generous 
helping of termites. Next morning we were back in the moun- 
tains and scrambling through the rrecfern trunks as a plane roared 
southward across Basi Strait carrying Mrs. Lyrebird for immediate 
liberation that day in the National Park 40 miles north-west of 
Hobart, and 400 miles from the scene of her capture. 

Not every day produced a catch in this type of limiting, and the 
sun rose and set several times without giving us more than a fine 
moutlt&in possum wluch so entangled its noosed paw- in a Frostan- 
thera bush chat it had no chance to chew off the snare and could 
only sit blinking at us in morning sunlight Then came a period 
of low clouds while trails of vapour hung across the hills. The 
ferny underscrub was iog-wet and mist-drenched so that clothes 
were continually soaked. Rain and a hailstorm dogged al! snares, 
and they had io be reset time after time. On these days of damp- 
ness and discouragement wc heard, as if in mockery, the swelling, 
challenging melody of lyrebirds from many points oi the compass. 
Alone one afternoon while crossing a saddle into the head of an 
opposite gully, and guided by a voluminous outpouring of "blick- 
blicksl" and bursts of song, 1 watched unobserved for five 
minutes while a beautiful full-tailed cock bird sang from a perch 
On a fallen tree. Around him, preening themselves on adjacent 
hmbs. were no less- than five plain-tailed birds — how many of these 
were hens and how manv immature males it was of. course impos- 
sible to tell without standing right among them, 

A second hen lyrebird captured near the entrance to a wombat 
Imrrow was released forthwith, however, for as soon as she ceased 
squalling, the pathetic cheeps of a well-grown fledgling revealed 
her as a mother with young ''at foot,'' 

Knowing by now the actual territory roamed by the cock lyre- 
bird heard on the day oi arrival, and having glimpsed him once 
when in an meaotious moment he chased an immature bird out 
of Ins gully past me, the quest boiled down to a matching oi wits. 
Except in certain tourist areas, such as Sherbrooke, where a few 
birds are semi-tame, the forest lyrebird is most elusive and self- 
effacing. Time and again our quarry scratched quantities of debris 
and soil over snares. One morning, however, a whole week after 
the initial work m the gully and whilst alone on the job, I heard 
danger calls of "Quisst"! faint and far away, hut' in the direction 
of the male's favourite feeding grounds. Seconds later a tremeii- 

THE VICTORIAN' NATURALIST Vol. 69 September, 1952 

Plati: IV 

u. £ 
5 kE*3 

jc ■- - 

. - - 

_ ^ 


THE \'ICTORIAN" NATURALIST Vol. 69 Si-pti-tnljcr, 1952 

Pl.VIT \ 7 

'Z k 
k - 


Hfri ] Dl J?Lfcvv — Transferrins lyrctiirds to Tosmmm (53 

dous -squalling and scolding summoned 'me to a breathless climb 
and scramble into the gully. Sure enough, the big lyrebird was 
tethered to a quivering dancing snare-pole. What a glorious, 
lustrous-eyed bird he was ! My arrival was in time to prevent 
damage to a single 'feather of the sixteen in his new season's — 
and even then just over two toot— tail. He was a simply perfect 
specimen of the nature lyrebird, and his fresh tail was a sym- 
metrical shimmering delight. On being handled he reacted as 
lyrebirds do, not pecking with his beak, hut seizing one's hands. 
hi a powerful foot clutch that is quite painful and tenacious, much 
In the manner oi a hawk or eagle, except that Iictc the claws are 
hot sharp and pointed. By way of interest his weight proved to 
be 21b- 12£ox. With great care for his wonderful tail — sn easily 
broken in the struggles of these strong-legged birds — I carried 
him down gully and across the ridges to camp. As usual I /eh 
somewhat conscience stricken about taking such a prince of 
songsters away from his haunts, but in a dark and web* ventilated 
tea-chest he sat quietly and philosophically while the car jerked 
and bounced on its journey through the bush to the low country. 
0"ce again, early the following morning, an Australian National 
Airways DC3 winged across the sea to the southern island Stote. 
By early afternoon this fine bird had scampered into dense scrub 
m the National Park, practically identical with his own, and with 
the operation completed the total of lyrebirds flown across Bass 
Strait rose that day to eleven pairs. ■ 

For the appended list of birds and date* I am indebted to Mr. A. D, 
Kutrher, Director of the Fisheries and Game Department. Those secured 
2nd forwarded between 28/8/1934 sunt 26/8/1938 were, 1 understand, the 
mull at operations bv Mr. How?.' 

From 5/11/1941 to 7/12/1949 birds snared and delivered to the Mel- 
bourne end were largely combined efforts on the part of myself and the late 
Roy Aldersrai. oushman par exec] lei ice, and gocd companion oil lhe Tas- 
maman Thylacinc search ot 194S-4C>. 


28/8/34 1 6 \ By lit to National Park on 29/8/34. Tasmania repot ti ,-f 

J ? I bird found dead or. 29/S/W 2 believed well. 
14/8/35 I a* Forwarded bv air and. kept in a svecial pen. Died 22/8/35. 
23/8/35 1 £ By air. Liberated National Park. 
5/9/55 1 $ \ By air 3/9/35. Liberated National Park. 

2 a J 

36/8/38 2 pairs bv air 26/8/38. Liberated Naiional Park, 
5/1 1/41 1 S X Bv air 5/11/41. Liberated National Hark. 

25 J 
26/1/45 1 pair. By air. Liberated Hastings, 27/1/45. 
2K/S/4S 2 o X Bv air. Liberated Hastings. 29/5/45. 

50/5/45 r 2 By air, Liberated Hasting*. 30/5/45. 
30/11/49 I 5 By air. Liberated National Park 
7/12/49 1 $ By air 8/12/49. Liberated National Park. 

Total Jl males 

II fcrnalc*. 
Nine real^ and eleven females Ijelicved to have become «lablished. 

<A A. H, CRrsBor.M— t.yr.'bin/ HHUciimi \m>\ NSW, [ Vi ^ M ^ L 


By A, H. Chisuolm, Sydney 

Much destruction was caused by fires in heathlands dud fotests 
near Sydney during the summer of 1951-52. It is difficult to 
estimate the extent tr> which birds guttered, but we (ear that small 
and weak-winged species, such as the pretty variegated wren, the 
elfin emu-wren, and the talented heath-wren, were grievously 

We had thought, too, that jd some areas that were badly stricken, 
such as the National Park immediately south of the city, the 
various fires might have reduced the ranks of lyrebirds. Accord- 
ingly it was refreshing to learn from one of the National Park 
rangers at Easter that he had seen from time to time during recent 
weeks quite a number of the stately birds strolling or running 
about near the C'arrington Drive — that was, of, at periods 
when traffic on the roadway was light. 

"No." the ranger said, "I don't think that the fires hi the park, 
bad as they were, affected the lyrebirds to any extent. Those birds, 
that were in the stricken areas probably escaped into the bases of 
the gullies or into the header vegetation along the river, and I 
suppose they have since adjusted themselves to new spots- You 
ought to be able to see or hear a few this afternoon " 

That prediction was borne out J did in fact hear a couple of 
male bird singing fitfully, and although the day was Easter Sunday 
and motor traffic was heavy, 1 saw a lady lyrebird feeding com- 
placently within a few yards of the Cairinglon Drive. 

AU this, coupled with reports from ihe Blue Mountains, Kuring- 
gai Chase, and other relevant areas, seems to indicate that the 
lyrebirds of the. Sydney district have .survived, to a refreshing 
degree, the worst fires of many years, ft is a situation I hat tallies 
with the one that arose after the dreadful forest fires that occurred 
frt Gippsland early in 1939. We had feared at the Lime that 
lyrebirds must have been exterminated in many areas, but soon 
afterwards reassuring reports began to arrive- -the birds were 
observed in various places that had been almost wholly decimated. 
and m some spots they were seen feeding over burnt ground. 

Fires aside, ir is really remarkable that lyrebirds liavc contrived 
to maintain their numbers to an extent which, if not whoily salts- 
factory, is at least sounder than Australians had any right to expect. 

These regal birds have been known to the while man for 155 
years, and in that time they have suffered a sad tattering, l-'irst 
discovered (by a convict-bushman named James Wilson) in 1797, 
the species was made known in the following year to ("iovemor 
Hunter, who dubbed it "the Mew South Wales bird of paradise" 
and promptly sent a specimen to Lady Mary Howe, daughter of the 
First Lord of the Admiralty — the fighting sailor after whom Lord 

H$s] A - H Chisuolm— Lyrebird Fejkctions from ffS.W 65 

Howe Island was named. That specimen caught the eye of a 
soldier. Major-General Thomas Davie*, and lie, in an address 
tu Lhe Unnean Society of London in 1800, described the bird in 
detail and bestowed upon it the appropriate name of Menura 

Additional specimens were sent to London from 179*? onward, 
and in the following years settlers began to exploit the bird for its 
beautiful tail feathers. As earjy as 1824 the French explorer 
Lesson declared that the species was becoming rare through being 
"persistently hunted," and in 1S34 Dr. George Bennett also com- 
mented en the slaughter, adding that the price of tad feathers had 
increased from 20/- to 30/- a pair. Vandalism of the kind per- 
sisted along the years uito the present century. As late as 1912- il 
was stated at a congress of the R.A.O.U,, that in the previous 
year two Sydney dealers alone had been known to dispose of 1298 
tails of lyrebirds. 

When facts and figures such 35 these are considered, and when 
if is jemembered that foxes have also joined in the slaughter, 
that much "pheasant country" has been cleared, and that the rate 
of reproduction is slow (each female laying only one egg a year), 
We begin to realize that it is somewhat astonishing that any of the 
iSiirds at all still exist- 

The pleasing fact, however, is .that lyrebirds sometime* visit 
gardens in certain outer suburbs of Sydney, and that nests may 
still be found Ifl sandstone gullies within easy distance of the city. 
The males, it is true, are not by any means so accessible, nor so 
tolerant, &£ those of Sherbrooke. Forest near Melbourne, hut it is 
possible to watch them displaying in favoured areas such as the 
National Park (See K. A. Hindwnod's illuminating notes in the 
Vict. Nat, of Feb. -March, 1941, and my own notes in the issue of 
May 1936, for observations on die birds' habits near Sydney) 

On the whole it seems probable that, given strict enforcement 
of the protection they now enjoy, through legal enactments and 
the force of public opinion, Superb Lyrebirds will continue to sur- 
vive, and perhaps increase, in their coastal and near -coastal fast- 
nesses, from Sherbrooke Forest to the north-east of N.S.W., during 
many years to come. Doubtless, too, the Superb bird's Queensland 
representative — the one which inhabits the Stanthorpe district. 
possibly extending as far north as Mount Mistake, find which 1 
named in 1921 Prince Edward's Lyrebird — will persist indefinitely 
in its self-contained ''city" of granite. 

Confidence may not be so strong, pet baps, regarding the welfare 
of the smaller and less decorative species, Prince Albert's Lyrebird, 
which is restricted to a relatively small area of sub-tropical jungle. 
The portion of north-eastern N'.S.W , where this bird was first 
discovered about 1S49. has long since been cleared in the interests 
of dairying, So have numbers of other once-favouTed spots. 

<£ N A. WAKt*ikUt— Lyrebird Nolei from East GiffislaiMl [ V v' u) N ^ 1 

Nevertheless there still remain various aiea> of ram-forest in which 
the Albeit Lyrebird renders its brilliant conceits, and in particular 
there js that choice sanctuary, the National Park of the McPherson 

By N. A. Waki-kifid 

With most Victorian naturalists, reference to the lyrebird at 
once brings to mind thoughts of the Dandenohg Ranges, a«d 
particularly of Sherbruok Forest, for this is within easy range of 
our capital city of Melbourne. There the lyrebird population is 
comparatively sjarse, however, and one must go further east to 
see it in (rue abundance. Probably it is nowhere more plentiful 
than in the treefern country of the Coast Rauge to East Gippsland. 

About the watersheds of the larger stream? east of the Snowy, 
but particularly that of the River, there cue many hundreds 
of square miles of country where die Soft Treefern predominates. 
Everywhere there are signs of a dens? lyrebird population One 
may See sowes of the birds during a day's walk, and find perhaps 
a dozen of their great nests; and at any time there may lip. a 
number of birds simultaneously giving voice to their mimicry from 
several poinls of the compass. 

Further south, in the lower country east of Orbost, the lyrebird 
is almost as plentiful. When one drives along the Princes High- 
way in the early morning, it is the rule, rather than die exception, 
to see one or two of the birds crossing the road. This is the case 
particularly in the vicinity of Lind National Park- (Euchje Creek) 
and Alfred National Park (Mount Drummer). 

In the northern part of the district too, right into the Alps, the 
Mcnuta persists in numbers. It forages in the Alpine ash groves 
and nests on the rock ledges of the Great Dividing Range at between 
four and five thousand feet elevation. 

Hack in thfl lS70's the explorer-naturalist. Alfred Howitr, left a 
record of lyrebirds in the sandstone gorges of the Mitchell River. 
With two black guides he was making his way up the chasm of 
Deadcock Creek when they came upon two ol the birds. One 
blackfellow narrowly missed one with a rock; and the other was 
stopped in the act of throwing his master's tomahawk at them 
among the rocks. He could not understand the white man pre- 
ferring a new tomahawk to a dead bird. 

It was in the same area that my father had an interesting experi- 
ence some forty years ago. While climbing along a difficult cliff- 
face be became aware cd a lyrebird's nest on a rock ledge when 
(he youngster in occupation gave voice to the usual ear-splitting 
screech, Thereupon the mother bird appeared, and noting the 

IMS J Ni K Wakefield— Lyrebird Notes from Foil Gipfahnd 67 

climber's disadvantage, set to work to drive him away. He re- 
counts that he had a most anxious few minutes, while she beat him 
with her wings before he managed to shift to a less precarious 

On the occasion of a visit to Genoa Peak in 1939, a nest was 
discovered on a granitic ledge, and the large chick therein, when 
investigated closely, reared up — legs astride— and pushed its bod}' 
to the back of the nest, This was quite normal behaviour, but it 
provided an exception which I have never noted elsewhere; it 
remained mute. An hour or so later/ the test was repeated, and 
still it refused to give the normal call for help. So it goes down 
m memory as my one and only dumb lyrebird chick ! 



I never by chance, or mischance, refer to the mounds as "dancing 
mounds," as dancing mounds they are not. and never were. During 
apl the years I have been amongst them 1 have never seen the birds 
"dance" on a mound. They merely strut about and turn around 
whilst giving voice to their mimicry, scratching about in a desultory 
manner and elevating and depressing their tails the while perform- 
ing al! manner of evolutions. Occasionally they give a forward 
jump whilst calling "pillick pillick" and take two steps backward 
to the first position. This particular call is very far-reaching and 
the one designated by the blacks as "buln buln," the name by 
which they knew the bird. 

A more significant call resembles "chewey, chewey. chewey," 
accompanied by a strutting around and balancing on each leg 
alternately This call is decidedly amorous. The most significant 
call resembles the words "phiggerah, pluggerah, pfuggerah," with 
the first syllable in each word deeply accented. It is only used on 
slate occasions and as a prelude to the marriage ceremony. With 
his beak partly buried in the friable soil of the mound, the bird 
spreads his tail fan-wise behind him, hard pressed to the ground, 
and emits a most unusual sound resembling an explosion in a stone 
quarry. Thu bird during this operation never raised his head, hut 
he knews Ins lady is not far away and the performance is all for her 

These are the only occasions on which the bird even approaches 
the so-called "dance," but it is distinctly not an action to justify that 
name being applied. 

— the late Tom TftsoEtxAs, 

'■A G. Mack- Lyrebn-ds in Quecnsievd (Tv^te* 


By George Mack (Brisbane) 

Both species of lyrebirds are present in Queensland, but only 
in tftC south-east portion of the State This is rlie northern limit 
of range of both forms. 

The Albert. Lyrebird (Menura dberti) occurs in the tropical 
rain-foresc of the McPherson Range, including the Lamington 
National Park of 47,000 acres, on and near the southern border 
In the early days it was plentiful in similar forest on Mt. Tam- 
borinc, about 35 miles south of Brisbane. Settlement has deprived 
it of much ui its habitat in this area, but I have been informed 
that a few birds are still to be found on the slopes of the mountain. 

North of Mt. Tsmborine and about 60 miles south-west of Bris- 
bane, lyrebirds have been reported on Mt. Mistake. They arc likely 
to be M, albcrti. Although the presence of the birds in this locality 
has been known over the years, it would appear that no one has 
yet checked on the specie*. However, thee are good reasons to 
believe that it will prove to be the Albert Lyrebird. 

Incidentally, it is not always realized that tropical rain-forest in 
Australia is patchy and restricted Forms confined to this class o> 
country have been much affected h'y settlement. 

When a resident of Brisbane refers to the lyrebird, generally 
the species in mind is the Albert Lyrebird, which may have been 
heard, or even seen, in [he McPherson Range, a favourite walking 
and holiday district The birds are much more often beard than 
seen, and I have yet to know of any one having seen a display by the 

The, existence of the Superb Lyrebird (Mentirti novae- halltui- 
diae) in Queensland would appear to be little known except to 
residents in the restricted area where it occurs. Originally, this 
magnificent bird was present ill what is known as the granite 
country of the Main Divide between the vicinity of Stanthorpe and 
the southern border. Now the northern limit of its range is con- 
siderably to the south of Stanthorpe, and the possibility of main- 
taining the species in this- State is not as good as one would wish 
The fire-bug is here, and there is a particularly vicious one that 
always carries a hose of matches in the granite belt of Queensland. 

This area lies Jo the south-west of the McPheraon Range, skirt- 
ing the well-known Darling Downs, The climate is temperate. 
and it is here that apples and other fruits which require such a 
climate are grown in this State. The exposed masses and great 
boulders of granite are features nf the district, and this rock has 
provided the soils in the valleys and to the west of the mass where 
orchards are now established. 

Among the boulders and eucalypts. of the high country the 
Superb Lyrebird (M. ■nimiv-hoUaniiiatf) is still found. Its habitat 

?2j| J (j. MaCK — Lyrebirds in Queensland 69 

is tjuw greatly restricted, apparently much more so than when 
Spencer Robert* (1922) wrote his accounts. Roberts was a 
medical man who practised in the Stanrhorpe district some years 
ago. lie was interested in birds and was readily attracted by the 
number of male lyrebird tail feathers he. saw in the homes of his 
patients. With the aid of local bushmen he investigated the status 
of the species in the granite, belt, and finally obtained specimens 
which A. H. Chishohu (1921) named. This is a good sub-species 
(;W_ n, editrndi), lighter among other characters, more greyish, 
titan novae-hollandiae, 

I visited the district in the winter of 1951 with other members 
of the Queensland Museum staff. A camp was established in the 
Wyberba Valley, about seven miles east of the main Stanthorpc- 
WaJlaiTgarra highway, beyond an area of 12,527 acres which 
has been declared a national park. Tins valley was in fair condition, 
and lyrebirds were heard and seen by members of the part}' ; but 
since, then fire has swept through the area. 

In many parts of Australia settlers carelessly fire the country- 
side with a view to providing stock feed when rains come. No 
such purpose can be behind the fires which occur in the granite belt 

Althnugh I heard the grand voice of the Superb Lyrebird on 
more than one occasion, I did not at any time hear a good, pro- 
longed series of calls of the kind one comes to expect from the 
males of Sherbrooke Forest, Victoria. However, my visit was 
brief, and the open nature of the granite country is not helpful in 
the matter of cover. 

It is already well known that the birds b£ the area sometimes 
build their tiests on ledges high up on giant boulders. 1 was not 
surprised; therefore, when kindly local residents informed me that 
the nests were now always built in (his situation because o'" (be 
presence of the introduced fox. 1 did not point out at the time 
that all the foxes in Australia emild not cause the birds to change 
their habits in this respect, or that the greatest destroyer of the 
species is the human heing. 

-Subsequently three of us, one a local resident, high u\\on a 
ridge one afternoon from which there was an excellent view of 
rhe south. I was appalled and remarked upon the. burnt-out state 
of the country towards Wallangarra. This, I was told, was the 
Work nt a man with a box of matches. Making our way down to 
the valley in the late afternoon, the going as usual was difficult 
and we moved in single fife. Suddenly the leading man stopped: 
in front of him was a fresh lyrebird nest built on the ground. Out 
shot the female, and she disappeared in a flash between two massive 
boulders. She had been sitting on die usual single egg enveloped 
in feathers. This was the only nest noted 

70 The Late T. Tnzctu.AS-rkc Ycunfj Mni * [ V1 v^ N ,V" 

I should add, perhaps, that efforts have been made, and will 
continue to be made, by interested societies to prevent the exter- 
mination of the Superb Lyrebird in Queensland. 


Chisliolm. A, H. (1921). — A new Mcmira: Prince Edward's Lvrebii'd. 

The Emit, 20, pp. 221-223. 
Roberts, Spencer (1922). — Prince Edward's Lvrcbird at home The Evm. 

21, pp. 242-252. 


When first hatched the young bird is sooty black, but each mic- 
cessive week sees it getting greyer until it leaves the nest in about 
six weeks The question of leaving is determined by the position 
of the nest. They arc found anywhere — on the ground, on stumps, 
and rocks, between and on top of tree-ferns, in forks of sassafras, 
blackwood and wattle, and as much as sixty feet or higher in a 
mountain ash. The earliest bird in my diary left a nest on the 

S round at JS days, and from the nest at 60 feet, his mother helped 
im down at two months, 

When the mother collects food for the young, she stores it in 
the pliant skin under the bill, and an overplus of worms often pro- 
trudes from the beak. A centipede is regarded as a tit-bit, and 
after being chewed all along ii s length to make sure of it being dead, 
it is laid aside, until the mouth is full, then picked up and carried 
dangling to the nest When returning with food the mother keeps 
up a continual purring note which intimates to the chick that some- 
thing good is on the way. and he replies by a gentle twitter. Giving 
him the centipede first, she watches till it is safely down and then 
bestows [he remainder oT the food, placing her bill right down his 
throat and pushing it down with her tongue. 

For many months after leaving the nest the young bird is 
attended by the mother, which at the slightest disturbance utters 
an admonitory call which is at once obeyed by the chick taking 
cover till danger passes, and again emerging when assured that all 
is sate. She is most assiduous in her devotion, watching him 
carefully to see that he does not take what is not good for him 
and talking incessantly in a soothing voice, 

At roosting time she carefully teaches him how to ascend the 
blackvoods to get out of the way of marauding cats or foxes, and 
it is wonderful to see the agility displayed by the little fellow even 
at such an early age. and the use to which he puts his already long 

— the late Tom Tregellas, 

THE VICTORIAN' NATURALIST Vol. (<9 September. 1952 

Plate VI 

IJay-iilil Lyrebird Chirk 
Photo: A. G. Campbell (taken under permit, Fishers & f.ame Uepl.l. 

*'^] A. C: Cwvnru.—Sfmg of t*c Lyrebird 71 


By A. G. Gampbelc, Kilsyth, Vic. 

Tt is well known that the lyrebird -weaves the songs of other 
birds into a melody that makes the woodland ring, but vety Jiftle 
has yet been done to understand the Construction and technique 
of this remarkable performance Even in ■winter, the playtime of 
the lyrebird, when it builds earthy mounds, for its displays, the 
bird is ever elusive, never two days alike, full of surprises and new 
doings- For long periods of the day there may be no sound from 
the lyrebirds. Suddenly a rich voice floods the dim aisles of the 
iorest with a riot of melody, mocking (he birds of the bush with 
inimitable precision, from the tiniest chatter of little Tbornbills, 
uttered with bill almost closed, to the long spring song oi Grey 
Thrush breaking fortissimo on the pungent air. There arc at least 
a score of wild bird calls woven BH6 this shower of song, together 
with a percentage, perhaps one-fitth, which may be termed the 
lyrebird's own. 

While there is no particular order or sequence, each call is well 
executed . it is the exception for one to be partly given. A prominent 
item is the laugh of the kookaburra, which may last several seconds. 
The classic, item is the full song of die Grey Thrush, which last?, 
about five seconds. This is a charming thing. White some. 
observers Uurik it an improvisation, it seems to be pure rendering; 
of one of the most delightful songs of the bush, the mating song of 
rlhe Grey Thrush, heard only in early spring. The Whipbirrj's 
call is excellently reproduced, and the Pilot Bird's also. Both some- 
times have the answering notes of the female bird as well. On 
occasions the lyrebird gives the answer only to a real Whrpbird 
near by, 01 imitates exactly the notes of other birds which are 
being given at the time. Wild cockatoos, both Black and Gang- 
Gang, receive a share of attention. Two kinds of currawong. 
Pied and Grey, are well given There are other sounds ascribed 
to the lyrebird by bushmen — notably the sound of axe, maul, cross- 
cut saw or baric of a dog. There is one which is sard ro resemble 
a hydraulic ram — a series of clicks or claps which bear some 
resemblance to this sound, but which are given at a different 
pace. These are signs of annoyance, heard from both male and 
female birds on occasions when some onlooker has interfered with 
the bird's wishes. 

With the assistance of a stenographer, *cranscripts of the songs 
of many lyrebirds have been made. Hundreds of calls were taken 
seriatim in the Dandenong Ranges. Analysis of these proved 
there are certain sinall individual variations outcropping in some 
localities : and again there are signs of clannishness. where adjacent 

* 1 wbs Indebted i» the l*te Jolm Cray and lo Ml»s in&. W«tiWTi for asotetanre. 

72 A. G. CAMVMZL—Sona «/ the Lyrebird [ V 'voi. T «" t 


male birds follow much the same series of calls. Strangely enough, 
there aie no cuckoos or other migrant specks of visiting birds 
among the calls of these lyrebirds. There are no night noises or 
calls, either of nocturnal animal or bird. Although honeycaters, as 
a Iribe, are plentifully distributed throughout the forest all the 
year round, only one lyrebird was heard to imitate any of the family. 

By actual count, those calls, identified as the lyrebird's own. 
head the list, being just over 20% oi the total. They have a 
variety in themselves, but attention has not yet been given to their 
classification. Then there are a great number of small notes of 
little birds, like thorn bills and scrub wrens. Tbese are over 15% 
on the list, bearing some relation to the number of small fry which 
aie usually in attendance about the haunts of the lyrebird, where it 
is at work scratching upon the forest floor. Among others the 
Grey Thrush takes pride of place with 16%, the Whipbird next 
with 9%, and the Kookaburra very close tip. Then follow in this 
order: parrots, cockatoos (two kinds), Pilot Bird, Yellow Robin. 
Golden Whistler, currawongs (two) and Butcher Bird The only 
introduced bird on the list is the Blackbird, whose alarm note 
was sometimes given. Unidentified calls amounted to 7fo. A 
session as a rule lasted about ten minutes. One exceptionally long 
recording was twenty -seven minutes — on a wet afternoon, when 
the bird had been pent up for some hours owing 10 bad weather. 
This, however, was a particularly fluent and brilliant performance, 
containing the beautiful Grey Thrush rendering no less than forty 
times. What makes the lyrebird's song the more remarkable is 
the pace of it all, besides the fact that there is never any particular 
order or sequence in the various calls. Some birds, more deliberate 
than others, averaged 5 seconds, medium ones were 3.7 seconds, 
fast ones, 3.2 seconds per call. 

On the gramophone record available tn the public, is a partial 
but very good representation of these powers nf mimicry and 
song, there being about forty mimicked calls, rqjrescnling e'even 
species of other bush birds, and twenty-one calls belonging to the 
lyrebird itself. The time actuaUy taken in this reproduction 
averages about two and a half seconds per call. This is too fast, 
btit serves to illustrate die extraordinary flow of singing that 
takes place. 

All .these observations go to show that we have much yet to leavu 
regarding the voice oi the lyrebird. Probably in other and more 
distant parts of its habitat there would be considerable changes in 

i»52 j C. Hartsiiorne — Impressions of Lyrebird's Singing 73 


By Charles Hartshorne (University of Chicago) 

Lyrebirds have strong claims to the title, "The Most Entertaining 
Birds in the World." This is said, of course, with a view to their 
general behaviour, including the dancing, singing, mound building, 
and still other actions. The song itself seems to mo one of the 
great ones. Here, is almost a Shakespeare among birds, giving one 
everything from the clown's laughter (the Kookaburra imitation) 
to the delicate love song (the Pilot Bird's lyric). And yet the 
singing seems to me to have a more original and coherent style 
than our North American Mocking Bird's, which occasionally 
exhibits about the same versatility of imitativeness. This style is 
one of boldness, tingling vitality, a challenging, proud, imperious 
air. The song is not throughout highly beautiful, hut it has great 
beauty here and there; it is not exactly an exquisite song, but it has 
frequent exquisite touches. It has been said of the nightingale 
that its keynote is excitement, that it is an operatic singer. This 
seems even more true of the lyrebird. The specialty of this species 
is dramatic contrast and stunning surprise. But there is rather 
more continuity to my ear, than in the Virginia Mockingbird's 
sequence of imitations, when that bird is in its most imitative mood. 
The chief means of continuity in the American singer is usually a 
slightly boring way of repeating most phrases, several, and even six 
or more, times. The lyrebird seems to be too impatient to be 
getting on to linger that long over any one little, musical point. In 
this T sympathize with it. 

I have compared the song favourably with two famous ones. 
Perhaps I should add that trie Nightingale is a neater artist, and, 
as it were, somewhat more refined. And perhaps the Mocking Bird 
is on the average mellower in tone. None of the species mentioned 
has in high degree certain strictly, almost technically, musical values 
which some thrushes in North America, and even more (it is said) 
in Central America, and probably elswhere, can offer us. But no 
one composer ever has everything. 

A curious feature of the Lyrebird's singing seems to me this: 
it has an upper and a lower storey, and here and there a little high- 
jwinting spire. That is, a good part of the song remains near a 
certain (for a bird) quite low pitch, much of the rest nea.r another 
much higher pitch, with now and then an ascension into even higher 
ones, Musical persons ought to decide for us what the pitches in 
question are, but I am sure that the total pitch range is one of the 
greatest in any bird, greater than any song in Europe or North 
America, say, at least three and a half octaves. Only one song 
with this range has corne to my cars, that of the Japanese Bush 


C. Hartshorne — Impressions itf Lyrebird's Sitti/intj [ ' v< ^ 6 g ' 

Warbler, as I heard it in Hawaii, where it has been introduced. 
This is considered a leading singer in Japan. 

Since neither the Lyrebird nor the forests which it requires in 
order to survive have any close parallel elsewhere, the preservation 
of both will, I trust, always be a national objective. Only in a 
small part of the United States are there such tall trees, and they 
are very different indeed in character. The Sherbrooke Forest, 
with its amazing birds, yields experiences which can never be for- 

Note filmy lyrate and "feeler" feathers 
Photo: A. G. Campbell. 

ma ] -'• H WiUJS— Prettier NateS m Flower Pcrlnmcs 75 


Two country members of tin.' dLb have responded to my concluding query 
an thu odours exhaled by native aroids and certain oilier plant-; [Vict. Nat. 
69: SO. Aug, 19521, The Rev. TI. M. R, Rupp writes (2t)R.'B2) fr.mi 
W itl.iLij^hliV, N.SW, concerning the "cunjevoi" {/ilocasio xiac.mrrliisa) 
and "dead dog lily" (Txpttmvtvi Orwwtii), faoili indigenous to ute North 
Coast rejyon of New Snulh Wales, where lie ha* studied them (ft Mtu and 
under cultivation • 

Mr, Ruop likcm cunjevoi pei'lume to the scent of A. & Fi Heirs' historic 
transparent soap which dates from 1789 — a very characteristic smell, bul 
one whose formula is doubtless kept a close trade stern As ki the 
Tyf'huv.utm, he calls its odoui "disgusting"; but, strangely enough, a plant 
cultivated at Copinanhuf st became quite odourless. No aroma wm detected 
in the other tivo N.S-W. aroids, Cyiiino.tltiihyi nticeps and Palhat longif)f.t 
<Uot P, loitrcirii). which are sclcrophyllous plants, with inconspicuous ill- 

Miss Jean Galbraitli (T^e/s. Vic.) challenges my class ificat ion (A Rarly 
Nancy [Anguitlari.i ttiotco) scent. iHSs had heen placed in ihe HONEy 
group (Vitfi cucalypi. Itakea. and Jettcopogon > j but Miss Galbraith insists. 
that the. odour is a replica, of Japanese Plum blossom (Prstnur salicina), L«. , 

a honey-sweet scent with subtle aXinoid backgiound. I ha>e jtlst sim'-lt *"'/ 
■anc of these plum uccs in lull bloom amf entirely a£ree, noticing that it i* / 

inclined to induce olfactory fatigue (.iiVte violets). Early Nancy should 
tliercforc be transferred to the amwoid |<roup. 

Since v.riiing for the August Neitoratiil <p. 47). 1 recall two other 
Australian species in which the perfume is delicately stock-like, viz. 
Bittbufh^limn 4w/fcyt (a rock and tree, orchid of iionh Queensland, with 
rather Urge dotted: dowers that open in January), and St<n:khoiwia hucgclh 
(flowering in <pring months, between the Murdiistm River and easterntmiHt 
rs 1 anc"s of tbe Recherche Archfpelasro, W.A.). 

Following are. a few example/; of distinctive scents among /Vnslralian 
flowers which may be added to 'hose alrcadv tabulated in Vict. Nut., Dec 
1944. pp. 134-5. 

ts'crole type : Piitosparwii rhoHibifaUum. of N.SW. and Queensland, ajid 
S'ocJthousia I'ulvnwris of the Austrahan Alps. 

Niitty-clovei ty[>C : Mnrrayo r.i/aiiftiti.ilgta of N. Queensland, with scetrt as 
of sweet yens. 

Alroholic-frtiirv iyp-~ VrUraiihlim' diouii'r (likt pearl t jan>) and Pinwl/a 
aifmtii (as of paw-paw)- both small alpine upecics. 

[The exotic encancous Rhododendron u,yricv/latuvi and Chihttt orbortn 
are strongly suggestive of pineapple gunva fruit and quinces, respectively. 
A' oltea ■ ufrtemm in # the.. Rhamliaceifi gives out a foetid indolic Odour J'ke 
that of our 'Stinking Pennyworth (Hydrocotyli] * 


"A-R.R." {Vici, ATfll.,Mti?., r S2) asks whether other observers confirm 
his experience that leai-eatiilg insect!, prefer the silver leaf eucalypts ? My 
experience definitely confirms this. 

Several spteimens of S, cordata were eaten out almost wholly evcy 
ye»r to furh rrTecr chat Hfe pUnls g.ive up the struggle after a few year*. 
fc'. macrocarpa was also badly ravaged, and although t succeeded in flowering 
it, the plant never looked ha;jpy nor healthy. Those 1 have seen in tti'-it 
natural habitat in Western Australia showed a rubusOies> of leaf growth 
thf.t X have never seen on any specimen cultivated in Victoria. E. cincrcc, 
ol which I have seen gtonously healthy s|iecimens in the Albury district. 

76 Silver-leaved Eucalypti f^l^* 

are so defoliated as to bn barely surviving in Melbourne) gardens. It is odd 
tfVBC the highly glaucous seedlings oi E. globulus when grown in its natural 
habitat are not so severely allocked as the others I have mentioned. A 
suggcMion may be that the high cinool content of its oil may protect them. 


The contention that Em: macraearpa, the silver-leaved Rose of trie West, 
and other glaucous-leaved species arc specially susceptible to insect attack 
is true so far as the southern latitudes sre concerned, ( Vict. iVat., Aug,, 1952), 
!n !act, it is on very rare occasions that a perfect specimen is seen jn the 
Melbourne area. However, here in central western N.S.W. my observations 
tend to show that the silver-leaved species arc no more susceptible than 

Wc baye Euc v>acroearl>a, Euc. rhodtntthc, Etu: pxdvendenta, Enc dncrea, 
Kite, albida, Eur., tetragona, Euc. kriLrinna, Euc, dcsmciidcnsis, Euc cruris, 
Euc. cordata, Enc. orbifatia, Euc. cordieri, Euc. olauccscens and 3 number 
of other silver-teaved species, and) not one of these ate especially susceptible 
to insect attack- Except for some fungoid blemish on the leaves <>f Euc 
macrucarpc. and Euc. cruiis during the record rainfall of 65 inches in )QSQ, 
the silver-leaved species are almost leaf-perfect. 

The mealy substance on the leaves and stems of so many of our eucalypti 
and other plants is one of nature's wonderful devices to prevent too rapid 
ir.snspiraiion. Jn abort, it is a protective device that is needed, in very cold. 
no less than in very dry areas, All of us know from experience that a 
plant in very dry soil is more susceptible to frost damage than one in a 
veil -watered ****• So «< "Ml that nature has developed this device to 
prevent plants from succumbing to intense cold on the one hand and to the 
ravages of heat and drought an the other. Possibly a chemical analysis 
of leaves taken from, sAy, En-c. wocucdrpa grown in Melbourne and 
one grown here on ihe western slopes of N.S.W., would reveal a big 
difference in the chemical make-up of the leaves. I know, for instance, 
that there has been proved to be a vast difference in the oil content of 
Melaleuca ntUrmfotia grown in it* nalive swamps antf the same species 
grown on the uplands of the same district. Possibly herein may be the 
ke.v to the incessant insect attack on silver-leaved species in <outhern Vic- 
toria. There is no real proof that these eucalypts in their native habitat 
are any more susceptible than arc other species. 



Fresh or pressed flowering material of the following Victorian species is 
sought :—P, dccusstita* and' P. dcb\lis. From South Australia the following 
tpceics are still needed:— P ailycina, P. Baxter*, P ■K-ilkicwa, and from 
N.SVV P. cincoHfera, P. crypta>idroidcs, P. ringens, P. Saxicola, P. mart' 
joHo, P. stourofihyllty, P. ttreiijolia and F- ntgosti Any reader living >n 
or haviner access tn areas where these species grow! is asked to kindly contact 
the writer at P.O. Box 5, Dripstone, S-W. Material of ail the »bovc is 
uigcinly needed to help in the study of this genus. 


*£*■ ] What, Where and When 

Generol Excursions.: 

Saturday, September 13 — Walk from South Morang to Diamond Creek. 

Subjects: Birds and Botany. Leader: Mr. R. Ferguson. 9.4 a.m. 

Whittlesea train from Princes Bridge, alight at South Morang. Bring 

one meal. Please note the altered train time. 
Saturday, September 20 — Walk from Kalorama to Olinda I ; alls. Leaders : 

Botany Group. 10.10 a.m. Croydon train, then bus to Kalorama. 
Sunday, September 28 — Beaumaris, Subject: Wedding Bush. Leader: Mr. A. 

Brookes. 1.35 p.m. Sandringham train from Flinders Street, then 

Beaumaris bus to Hayden's Road, where leader will meet party at 2.20 

Sunday, October 5 — Maranoa Gardens. Leader: Mr. A. J. Swaby. Mont 

Albert tram, No. 42, Collins Street, alight stop 54, Parring Road, up 

Parring Road to gates of Beckett Park, where leader will meet party at 

2.30 p.m. 
Saturday-Sunday, October 11-12— Week-end excursion to Maryborough. 

Leaders : Maryborough Field Naturalists' Club. Trans|>ort by private 

car; details of camping site and hotel accommodation available from 

Excursion Secretary at meeting. 

Preliminary Notice: 

Sunday, October 19 — Parlour car excursion to Musk and Bullarto. Subjects: 
Golden and Olive Whistlers. Coach leaves Batman Avenue at 9 a.m.. 
return to city approximately 7.45 p.m. Bring two meals. Bookings 21/- 
with Mr. K. Atkins, Botanic Gardens, South Yarra, S,E,1. 

Saturday, November 1— Parlour car excursion to Berwick. Leader: Mr. 
Chalk. Coach leaves Batman Avenue 9.30 a.m., return to city approxi- 
mately 7 p.m. 

Friday, December 20 — Saturday, January 3. — Christmas excursion to Mount 
Buffalo. Transport is by parlour coach, which will stay with party 
and be used for trips on the Mount. Approximate cost per person is 
£12/10/- for the nine days. Accommodation at the Horn Hut for 10 
people. Bookings and full details from Excursion Secretary. 

Group Fixtures: 

(At Royal Society's Hall unless otherwise stated.) 
Monday, September 22 — Botany Discussion Group, 8 p.m. 
Tuesday, October 7— Geology Discussion Group, 8 p.m. 


PLANTS. — Garden-grown native plants exhibited by Mr. K. Atkins, 
Mr. A. E. Brooks, Mr. Seaton. 

ORCHIDS. — Pencil Orchid (garden grown), Mr. Miller; Small Helmet 
Orchid (Coribiis inginculatus) — rare near Melbourne — Ycltingbo, Mr. R. 

SHELLS. — From Red Bluff, Miss Weston; from New Hebrides Islands, 
Miss E. Raff; front Pacific coastal reefs, Miss Macfie. 

BIRDS.— Albatross feet. Cape Patterson, Mr. Miller. 

INSECTS.— Phasma, "Laurie's Ringbarker," Pascoe Vale, Mr. R. Garnet. 

MARINE LIFE. — Barnacles ; crab carrying eggs ; large clawed burrowers 
(Caliianassa ceramics), ona with parasite lona — Mrs. Freame. 

STONE IMPLEMENTS.— Including an arrowhead from England- 
Mr. Brunton. 

84U9 , 

■- ■-■;■■ .'-:•■■- - ■:■:■■■■■ ■ ■■■■■-;■■■. ■■' .-;-:-■ ■ ■■■■.-■■■■.■■ .■■. :.;■. ■ .:. ' ■ : ,v ■ • _■ . . :■-£•;■ -ij; -.- i-^-iThM'Kvj : 


Shaping Your Future 

Your future welfare lies entirely in your own hands. 
You may shape it in two ways: You may "trust to luck" 
— the dangerous way that is followed by those who 
make the serious mistake of thinking that their future 
welfare will take care of itself — 

Or you may follow the better way chosen by hundreds 
of thousands of Victorians who have realized that it 
would be a calamity to be unprepared for the time 
when, for some reason or other, their earnings will stop. 

Save Now For Your Future Welfare 


"It is vital to Save' 

General Excursion!: 

Saturday, October 18 — Seaford. Subject: Ephemerals and Succulent Flora. 
Leaders: Botany Group, 9,50 a.m. Frankston train, alight at Sea- 
ford. Bring one meal. 

Sunday, October 19 — Parlorcoach excursion to Musk and Bullarto. Sub- 
jects: Golden and Olive Whistlers. Leaders: Bendigo F.N.C. Coach 
leaves Batman Avenue at 9 a.m., returning to city approximately 7.45 
p.m. Bring two meals. Bookings 21/- with Mr. H. Atkins, Botanic 
Gardens, South Yarra, S.E.I. 

Saturday, October 25 — Smuggler's Gully. Subjects: Birds and Eucalypts. 
Leader: Mr. E. Hanks. Take 9.4, Whittlesea train from Prince's 
Bridge, alight at South Morang. Book second return South Morang. 
Bring one meal and a snack. 

Saturday, November 1 — Club Picnic. Parlorcoach excursion to Berwick. 
Coach leaves Batman Avenue 9.30 a.m., returning to city approxi- 
mately 7 p.m. Bring two meals. Bookings with Mr. K. Atkins, 
Botanic Gardens, South Yarra, S.E.l. 

Group Fixtures: 

(At Royal Society's Hall unless otherwise stated) 
Monday, October 27 — Botany Discussion Group, 8 p.m. 
Monday, November 3 — Geology Discussion Group, 8 p.m. 

— 15, \V. Atkins. 

Friday, December 26th — Saturday, January 3rd 

Bookings arc now open for this excursion, the details of which are: — 

The Horn hut has \f> bunks with mattresses, in 4 alcoves with curtains, 
one camp stove, an upen fireplace. The hut is provided with firewood, 
cookery utensils, first-aid kit; no crockery or cutlery supplied. Permission 
lias been obtained for those people to pitch tents who desire to camp in 
the vicinity. 

Transport is by parlorcoach direct from Melbourne to the hut ; the 
coach will stay with the party to be used for trips on the Mount. The 
fare, £12/10/-, is based on 15 people going; the fare cost decreases when 
the number goes above 15, 

The Mount Buffalo Committee of Management charges a fee of 2/- per 
person per day (18/- altogether) to those who camp or use the huts on 
the Mount. This charge is not included in the fare. 

It is advisable to bring warm clothing and bedding for the nights are 
cold ; also waterproof clothing and hoots are essential in case of bad 

In the matter of food, there are at least 23 main meals, plus minor 
snacks, to be provided for, and members are to cater for themselves. The 
coach will travel to Porcpunkah twice during the week for supplies, but 
members are warned not to rely on obtaining their full supplies from this 
source. Bookings, stating whether the member (s) will need hut accom- 
modation or camping, with Mr. K. Atkins, Botanic Gardens, South 
Yarra, S.E.1. 

The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol. 69 — No. 6 OCTOBER 9, 1952 No. B26 


The munthiy meeting of the Club was held at flu: National 
Herbarium on Monday, September 8, 1V52. The President. Dr. 
Margaret Chattaway, and about 60 members Attended 

The recent death of Sister Melville was announced and the 
meeting rose to observe a brief silence as a tribute to her memory. 

Master Philip Ernst Bock (2 de Carle St., Coburg) was- elp.ied 
•to Junior Membership on the motion of Messrs. A. A Baker and 
T. C. Bryan. 

The President extended a welcome to Dr. R. Melville of the 
Herbarium staff at. the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kcw Dr. Mci- 
vjffc, who will he working :it the Melbourne Herbarium for 
nearly a year, responded suitably and expressed pleasure at the 
prospect of joining Viclonan naturalists 111 some of their 

The President again called for volunteers to assist in con- 
ducting school children through the Badger Creek Sanctuary, 
Hcaksvillc, and asked for ibe names of any who would be pre- 
pared to tutor boys at a Y.M.C.A. Summer Camp during January 
— an attendance of fine whole day, a week-end or part of a week 
would be appreciated, and all cxj>enses would be met by the 

Miss Margaret Blackwood (Botany School, University) gave 
an instructive and very entertaining lecture on the "Genetics of 
Corn" (Zea mays), illustrating her remarks with several lanteru 
slides and a A'aried assortment of maize cobs in different colours. 
Many questions were posed by meml)ei"s. and a hearty vote of 
thanks was carried on the motion of Mr. J. Ii. Willis seconded by 
Miss I. M. Watsow. 

Outstanding among exhibits were the following : a large collec- 
tion of West Australian wild flowers, by Miss N. T. FletcheT ; 
zinc shrcta being used in the actual printing of the late W, H. 
Nicholls's monumental work Orchids of Attsttvlkt, by Mr. Frank 
Piuchin (one of the skilled artists) ; wasps and spiders, by Miss 


h is with profound regret that we announce til* death of the Club's vice- 
president and honorary lanternist, Mr. T. C. Bryan, who passed away 
Mtddcnly on September IOfh — two days after fie had attended a monthly meet- 
ing, apparently in good health. Although he joined the F.N.C.V 9f 
recently a9 November 1946, Mr. Biyslt lost no time m identifying himself 
with the activities of the GfotoRy Group (formed earlier that year) where 
has enthusiasm ami genial companionship will be particularly missed. The 
Club was represented at the funeral ami extendi its sympathy to relative* 
of the deceased. 

80 WAKenELD, iv. A. TO.W 1, 


By >J. A. Wakkfikld 

In the 1925 Cmsiis oj iha Plunls of Vktoria, there was pub- 
lished a list tit 129 species which appeared in Mueller's Key to 
the System of Victorian Plants, but were omitted from the body 
of the Census. The purpose of this paper is to discuss this list 
a? regards the species from the eastern border districts, to explain 
the source* of the erroneous records as well as of oiher prema- 
tuve ones, and to make a number of corrections to this and other 
publications. This will clear up many questions, and leave the 
way open for another paper later, ui which proper credit can 
he given to those who, often unknowingly, discovered for the 
first time in this Slate, species prematurely recorded for Victoria. 

Baron von Mueller made three excursions into East Gippsland 
for the purpose of adding its unique species to the lists of Vic- 
torian plants. In 1S54 be travelled to the Snowy River in the 
beder area, before going on from Omeo to Orbost. In the 
following year ho explored the New South Wales alps and 
journeyed thence down along the Snowy River into Victoria 
Finally, in I860, he explored the Twofold Bay-Genoa district. 

The Baron's botanical discoveries on these occasions are almost 
all embodied in official reports, made in 1854, 1855 and I Sot, ta 
the Victorian government; and most of the localities for the 
•species are. recorded by George Bentham in Flora Austraiicnsis 
(1863-1878). Unless otherwise indicated, all plant species men- 
tioned in this paper, under the headings of Mueller's three jour- 
neys, appeared in the corresponding systematic lists (second, 
third and sixth), accompanying these three official reports. The 
bracketed generic and specific names indicate how the species 
concerned lias been reported (there and elsewhere) without qualifi- 
cation however as to whether it is a matter of synonymy or error 
in determination, etc. Some of these names have not been validly 

Unfortunately, the present location of the border was not then 
generally known.! It was surveyed in 1870-72; and the Baron 
included in his subsequent lists of Victorian plants, all the species 
met with on the three exeutsions, including those from the 
Kosciusko area and the vicinity of Twofold Ray, in N«w South 
Wales, Later, the collections of other botanists, from as far 
afield as the Shoathaven district, were used to add yet more 
New South Wales species to Mueller's Key. 

f' 1 ' 1 t'raiinturc •nirf Enmicous A\vorrf» af Phnls 81 



After his visit to the Cobboras Mountains in February, (he 
Bavon wrote : "From the Cobboras Mountains I continued in a 
north-easterly direction to the Snowy River, as far as the boun- 
daries of New South Wales''. 

It is obvious from various of his remarks, that the botanists 
idea of these boundaries was well to tbt north of their present 
position. Some specimens collected a year later were labelled 
"Summits of Mount Kosciusko on the Victorian frontier". 

Mueller would certainly follow the old Motiaro-Omeo track 
which skirts (be Cobboras on the south side, descends to cross 
the Herrima River at 3,000 feet, nses again to pass into New 
South Wales, thence to the )ngcegoodbee River, and from there 
down "The Pmcff to the Moyangul or Pinch River at its junc- 
tion wrth the Snowy. The track then ascends the valley of the 
Snowy for four or five miles to the mouth of the Tongaroo or 
Jacobs River, after which it again takes to the subalps and alps 
to continue on into Monara 

Down "The Finch", and in the valley ot the Snowy River, one 
meets dry C'iUitris-£ncatypti<S atbens country, as contrasted hi 
the alpine type fMWefin Omeo and Ingeegoodbee. Along the 
track, the former type is 'wholly within New South Wales. 
Amongst the numerous dry-type species collected in February 
1854. on the New South Wales tract of the. Snowy River, were: 

Myoporitnt (Disoon) floi'il>un<fmn— labelled "A|>di" apparently in 

S'orghni'ii IcitKhuhun (Andropogou anstralis and Sorghum plumosum). 
Rcrtya cttiwint/hnmt — trn-ohahly), but it is not in any systematic 
list, nor are the specimens dated. 

These three species have each been authentically recorded for 
Victoria only within the last twelve years. 

Erigcron coiiysoides— labelled "near the mouth of the Snowy 
River'', but both Ben than and Mueller invariably placed the spe- 
cies as alpine, at 4 5,000 feet. Hence it seems that an error in 
data has occurred ill connexion with the specimen label; and 
that die original specimen must have come from between the 
Cobboras and Snowy River, probably (but not certainly) Vic- 
torian. The "Coa^l Fleabane" of the Citnsus is an unsuitable 


In his third icport. in June 1855, the Baron reported, "I 
ascended the most northern alpine hill of th^ Munyang Mowi* 
tains on'lhe 1st January, 1855, and traversed in the weeks sub- 
sequent most of the principal elevations of the prodigious moun- 

Bi Wwi.;ffu», N- A 

f'Virl. Nat. 

L Vol co 

tains , . . descending, in the latter pun of January, along (he 
Snowy River to the lower country ..." Hence all alpine plant 
species collected in January 185 5 were from New South Wales, 
on the extensive Kosciusko Plateau. These records have already 
been omitted frnm the. present Census, with the exception of 
Catetis fflandulosa from "Dry grassy ridges of the Snowy River 
towards Maneroo". 


Alter his tliiid excursion into the easletn corner of the Srale, 
Mueller rcpurtcd, "During the mouth of September I was engaged 
in elucidating the vegetation along the south-eastern I'rontieis of 
the colony, crossing the country from Tsvofokl Bay to the Genoa 
. . . and ascending again the Genoa River to near its sources, 
examining the adjacent elevated country and Nungaila moun- 
tains on my way". 

Locations noted nn specimens show that some time was spent 
exploring the Ntingatta and Bondi (Rock ton ) Station areas near 
the Upper Genoa River — "Nungatta River" and its tributary 
"Nina Geek", "Nungatla Mrn." and "White Rode Mountain" 
(near Wog Wog) being mentioned All these, and the "'Upper 
Genoa River'" of September I860, arc exclusively New South 
Wales localities; for, on the Victorian side of the border, there 
is a tract of Devonian sandstone with many species of showy 
plants which grow extensively and flower profusely in September, 
but which were never found by Mueller. 

The non- Victorian material ot September liStiO falls into two 
groups. First, we have rbt- species which have never been found, 
as far as is known, within Vicroria. These are- 

From Twofold Bay; SU-phania li^rnanJiinlia. Homahtuihus popilnrut 
(OiitaJmilbus leschenaultraiius, Caruuibiuru |K>puij folium). Fiats nspura 
iscabra), Apliauopctaluiii resniosmn and Asplcnmm nijus; Pmnaderris 
churea, Panax mnirrayi and Verrionia cbw-rca- none of which llirce 
was in the Sixth Syst. List; and l'rr,stantin?ni incisa. This last, ibc- 
P. facta var. pubescent of Bentham, was based on specimens of 
F. violatc'i. 1 J , inv'sa bad appeared in the FourLh Syst. List, and h 
cited as ''Cann River" in the 19-8 Census, but both these records were 
apparent!) based on errors in determination. 

From Yowaka River: Phcbuliimt (Eriostemon) ratifoiii and l.a.Uii- 
pdiilnv! puirriflortnn, at well as Claoxylim australe and Acacia flffif 
fftlt&j neither of which is in the Sixth List This Acacia is reported 
in Flora Ausiraliens-is as "Granite ridges, near the Genoa River", 
but specimen labels indicate this to be an error, 

From Womboyu KivC-i tame Phdwliwit dw.<ntwnitt (Frioslcmon 
phyticoides) and Ex'jiJyfittis tMUnfoliu (Woolsiaua) (In Flora Aus~ 
irabe.iisis. this locality i<. .<pcli variously as Womboyn, Wombayn, 
Womliayue, Wombaya, Mombaya an<i Woinha?.a — apparently accord- 
ing to variaton* ki Mueller's spelling and writing!) 

1952 J fttflwture and brrwifvity Records o/ J-'htls &l 

Fron: "nesr Mount fmlay" fame Acacia snliiihncnnt, which is not' 
In rite Sixth l.m, and Epacrii robusta was found at White Rock. 
Mountain, Dudimsco calycrna (truncatialcs) from Towamba River was 
feted l)y holh Mueller and Bentham as from Genoa River also; but 
this seems to have arisen from a generalisation frequently ujed by 
the Baton when dividing a collectcuii Into a number ol foJders. Speci- 
mens from Gipsy Point, identified at, this species hy H, B. WiUiamson, 
■are D. atreitwUa. 

Next there arc the species , prematurely iistrd in I860, which 
have subsequently been authentically recorded Tor Victoria: 

From Twofold Bay : Eupoiimtia laitrmn, Zicni cytisoidcs, Trcvia 
.•.•.i/vru- (car.nabina), Beyttia lasiocarf>a, Alectryon xuhcrnereus (Cupania 
xylocarpa, Nephehuni leiocarputii). ().jyhb\Hm (PodoJohium) trtle- 
batiwi: Gniuinua barbata, Coudcmn tlcliii'cra, poiymort'lia, 
And Wt'Sfw'/kt rcisworinifoniiu; Davie.tia wyatlii and Nototkixot 
SubdWrttS (Viscuin incanum) — neither of which is in the Sixth List; 
Patmidrvris liaiutrism and Otcarin fEurybia) dculala, which had already 
appeared m the Second and Third Lists respectively, owing to error-, 
in determination; and Pilloxporvvi revohttmn, for which Beuthani': 
Genoa River sitation 19 probably also a. generalisation. 

From Yowaka Riwr came SrJiocnux metatt/lltachvf (uot in tlie Sixth 
List), La.rivpetalum fcrruyincum and Jfibbrrtio diffusa. This laM. oftrrtc 
appears in the First List and Muellei's Key, applying tlterc to H- i'ii/r- 
arii var. obtusifolia; while the "Yowaka Rivet pl&Jts were inrlurlod 
iu Vol. 1 of the Key, as H Htmingyiio.. 

From Womboyn River cainr Pfirnnllirra cnrj<inb».<a, Jscpaijon <i>ic 
imimf'iliui and ScIiooms imberbir. 

From "near Mount Imlay" : Hakea dactyloutcs (maligna) and Acacia 
s:d'porasa, neither of which is in the Sixth List; Glosfdia ibinjfr, 
which appeared hy error in the Second Lei) and Barcltra innlotia. 

From Braidwood: Hpioro$i$ uwios/frriiia, Cryj>tmtdr» sctttlecfiimi, 
(mohiccaiHw), 1'tmoonm viyrMfoidcs, Telafiea. ormdci, Scutellaria 
mt>lHx and CtJltttiit (Claditnn) mt'k>><?£<t*pa, Hterockioc ranfinr.i, which 
appealed iu the Seventh List; Plf'is wnbrotta, which wa± ui thr Second 
T.-ist by error , and AdimUtau hispiduinm. Both thc.50 tern records 
• were .subsequently listed a;; "Genoa River". 

Fjoih "'Upper Genoa River" Came fnlUnuta ulti-siima Ifiexilisj. 


Although Mueller made no more excursions ta south-eastern 
New South Wales, he received lurther specimens from that dis- 
trict, and continued to record for Victoria .species which had not 
been found in tht: latter State 

Tn 1879 and 1&80, E. Reader suppSied numerous specimens from 
Tilba Tilba and Mount Dromedary, including Wilis bowlimuwi 
(anrarctica), Xanthtma aitkinxoniana, Bd-ckkmuia myrhivhn, 
Ehretkt acuminata and Owta' di'ctinota — none of which has been 
icnitid in Victoria; and Dvymudiu-m brack ypod-wn. Sfwialwn 
vbtiuifolmiv, and Dryopin is (Aspidium) tencra. Front "T(w 
PeaU", evidently about that district roc, Reader sent Cynthoihaet? 

84 \VnnrnTu.. N. A. [%$*' 

diandru. These last luur species have recently been discovered 
in Victoria. 

»om 18S3 to 1SS7, Wtllwm Biiuerhu, a surveyor of New 
South Wales, sent the Baron much material from the south- 
eastern area of that slate. Almost all of this was recorded as 
Victorian. First there are IS species which have never been 
found in Victoria : 

Prom Braidwood i Holornt/u ino'tospcruie. Cry/>t()u<lra ,inn)aeli>'t>>, 
Acfinotus yibbonsii, Prrsooi'in n.vycoccoidcs, 1-crsnwia icvoluta, Hahctt 
m-acrcana and Protiaiithrra sn.vicvta; Schocwts zricilonun, which name 
was later erroneously applied to .specimens of $'■ imbcrlHs ffoni Sperm 
Whale Head iu Victoria; and Chloavlha f><irv(fifait-, which was sUo 
recorded later from "near Swan Hill, V'sctoim" 

From Shoal haven ~ Zt>rO£D flil>hyllrt r KviKto (.Hptlno, Kfozyis longi- 
flara and Tticoryur simplex. 

"Grntiana quad* if aria" was sent from Qtiiecong (near Ronibaln I . and 
Cassinia quvtqucjario irom Cooma. 

Acacia vestita came irom "Delegate District' 1 . ;«nd AvifStehhtfA 
olsimn irom Jvfungatta. 

At'.tmtilus lir!ttmtl\i wss recorded iron! S Specimen It out Miltoo: 
and there is also an c»am;'>]e of it Libelled ' "At the summit of Mount 
Imlay, L Morton. Dr. Mue'ilcr Comni. Sept. I860''. 

Species recorded then fvom Biiuerlen's New South Wales 
material, but since Wine! in Victoria, are: 

CfR'rBfn'A nam;, Lciiaifioijcw- esquomiiliti- (Stypbelia appressus) anil 
Dcyeaxia fmwtiana (Aerostis brtvtgtunrii ) front Braidwood, 
Cloxaoqync lautifulio from Twofold Bay district. 
Halnrnah raciiwsa (Biitierlcuii) and LtucopoQon (Stypliclia) 
nltunnaims from Mount Tingiringi. 

(Although the bordev watf through both Delegate District Bud 
Mount Tingiringi, the specimens concerned were certainly jfbfll New 
South Wales. Jt has been noted that the very few specimens collected 
by either Bauerfen oi Reader on the southern side of the border were 
invariably noted with "Victoria" on the original field label.) 

In 1869-71. Charles Wnha accompanied a geodetic survey 
patty into East Gippsland As well as Victorian specimens, he 
sent the Baton a quantity of New Smith Wales material — some 
of his own collecting, hut some, too, possibly from other hands. 
Hence, the following tour erroneous records were made: 

Froitaiithtrn. violacctt came again, from "Cape Howe 'Ranges. Two- 
fold Bay", and this time it was correctly identified; while Howartmihvs 
(Darwinia) vrrf/aSits appeared with the label "East Gippsland". The 
latter name was included in the Seventh List, and the specimen wa* 
later (erroneously) labelled ''Danvima I a,t--\jntia'\ resulting, it seems, 
in both species being included in Mueller's Key 

The Baron described "Uriosfcnion ni,\plifo!iux" from leaf only, from 
Walter's Collecting on the Upper (Jenoa River; bat its true identity 
is not established, as the specimen is lost. 

Hcstio gmrilis, a near-Sydney specie;., was recorded in the Key 
because oi an "East Gippsland" specimen of Waiter's, but the idenli"' 
of which is unknown as the foider with ;his label, in the "Melbourne 

Ocl. 1 

l*re»mture nud fc>roiicw/< Hctnrdt of i'l<tnts 85 

National Herbarium, later somehow came to cuntain an entirely ii'tw- 
■ v3flt Specimen. Another collection, labelled as A', flracilh, (R1acl<- 
watch Creek, C French, Jan. 188*>J is tht subalpine R. anstralis. 


in 1885, there appeared Volume IT o[ Mueller* Key to ihs 
Svst-em of Victor-nit Plants, with a census nf tlee species of "Vic 
tona which were known at that time. Volume I of the Key, 
dated 1887-8, embraced also thfi additional species identified in 
the meantime*, these being listed on pages 529-30 thereof. Almost 
an exact replica of these additions is fonnd in the Victoriiw 
Maturatist 5:' 14 (May JS88). where Mm-ller published a "Sup- 
plement to the Enumeration of Victorian Plants, comprising 
species added since Part If of the Key; with a few species before 
omitted": arising from "Ficldwork of Messrs. W- Bauerlen . . . 
and C. Walter". Following this supplement was a further list 
of Rauerlen's records, of 33 plants which "'approach the Victorian 
?»otindary almost within a day's good walking distance". This 
fatter was a rather doubtful lot. moil of them coming from some 
hundreds of miles away One. was already in the Key (Vol. fl), 
and another was added in Vol, T, while only three of the others 
have subsequently been found in Victoria. 

Of the eastern records of the Key, the reasons have not been 
forthcoming for the inclusion of Lcnopogon esquamatus, Marx- 
dema fUivesfcns, M 'tiehleiibeckia gracMtima and Leucopogon (Sty- 
phelia) murafrhyllas, each of which has been found in Victoria 
only during the present century. 

Jacksonw clarkei appeared in Vol. I of the Key, p, 529. The 
type specimens arc labelled from "Sources of Caim River, Mr. 
A. Clarke". This material, and other sent at the same time by 
Dr. BecWer from New England in north-eastern New South 
Wales, are so identical in all respects — size of specimens, aspect, 
stage of development of flowers and fruit, etc. — as to leave no 
doubt that the- allegedly Victorian specimens were taken as such 
owing to a mixture of dura, The species l& confined to New 

Errors in determination were responsible for inclusion of the 
following species: 

Cdttistcmon liiwartSj Jlrwstcmon Innccolatiix, Acacia qlnuccsctns awl 
Gletehann hcranmni, according to the 1928 RN.CV. Census. Baeiknt 
samplw'i'Ui was an error for specimens of. B, aitmiaim, /Vevoonfit 
/ii«iv<)/(if(> for Sfln« P' ttrtris (saliona), Ewa/ypiits piMaris iw £ 
tauclltriaiM and D<mdia nr/w/i for D nw<ii<i Other similar errors, 
apparently gave us spurious records; of Ftypolrfns iiiuurfolia. F.pan^i 
crassiloiia h'imbrislxtis ferrugmta. Acacin crassiusaila, Myopomw. 
temtifohum and Mclaicwa hyferidfolia. 

All the species dealt with so far in this paper appear in Mueller's 
Key. An analysis of data on herbarium specimens, together with 

Bfi W*&mU; X. A. p*j| ^ ,L 

the publication of the various records, particularly in the mailer of 
darts, and on the notr.s in the Baron's Fraymenta, leave no doubt 
at all that, even after the marking of rhe border -line, the policy 
was to include in the Victonan Census of Plants any species 
found within a hundred miles oj the eastern part of the State- 
Probably this procedute was actuated by the idea that in the 
course of time such plants would be found indigenous to Victoria; 
it has actually been vindicated in about SO per cent, oi the species. 
So, with the advent of the Key m the 1S80's, we find about 50 of 
the species with which this paper is concerned erroneously in- 
cluded, as well as a similar number prematurely .so, with also 
nearly a score due to errors in determination. 

It must be noted here that there is little or no evidence that 
;iny published locality records were based solely on Mueller* 
notes or memory. It seems that he adhered rigidly to the principle 
of having actual specimens lo siippurt all such records. But, in 
many cases, regional generalisations were later made and dupli- 
cate specimens so labelled when they were isolated or mounted for 
some, special purpose. Jn these cases such terms as "Snowy 
Slyer* "Genoa Riv«5r J ', "eastern extremities oi the colony", etc., 
have been used loosely.; hut the pmisal of original labels almost 
always reveals the relevant specific localities upon which these 
arc based. Jn some cases, too, specimens are missing from their 
rightful places in the Melbourne National Herbarium. From 
time to time, IMuellei sent much material (o overseas botanists, 
often on Joan : and some such .sets, uhen returned, found place 
in huge unsorted and supplementary bundles. When these are 
finally sorted, <here is certain to be further light on some of the 
doubtful points in this and Other papers on our flora. 


h\ later years, Charles Walter apparently received much 
tuatericd from botanists oi other States, as well as of Victoria. 
There is definite evidence that, possibly after his death, many 
of his specimens were placed together, and a great number segre- 
gated later svith their wrong labels. Thus, from his herlwrium 
we find specimens of Acton eiongata and fhcbaUum dsnlalum 
(lahclM "East fiipp.dand, Oct 1877", but never listed for Vic- 
toria) and Steftluuria hermndifolia, labelled "East GippsUmd" or* 
"Victoria". None of these three is known to occur in this State- 
In some cases, such labels may have alluded to the supposed dis- 
tribution of a species, rather I ban to the actual source of the 

For this reason, no reliance' can be. placed on the data with 
.•.pecimens from Walter's herbarium, of Ohvma dentata, losio- 
petalum ferrugimnm ;wd Schoenus iinberhis. Through the same 
channels has come material, supposedly from East Gippsland and 

p^i] frVlWiturt (Wei Erroneous Wi'citfrrfo oj Plant/ 87 

collected by Edward K. Pescott. These are the Steplwnui again 
front "Orhust -- , Leucopoqommcrophyllus (but not the East Gipps- 
land form of it!) and Raeckfn linijolia. Olenriti dentata bears the 
label "McCulloch Range" (Murrungowar), and the occurrence, 
there, of the superficially similar 0. stellulata supports the conten- 
tion of mixed labels. 

Dates on the other nine preceding specimens are all of about 
the same general period, ranging from 1897 to 1902. 

Carl H. Grove, a fanner of Newmerella, made an exhaustive 
study of the flora of the Obost district, sending .specimens to 
Mueller for identification. Later, in 1906. he forwarded material 
6i sQdtndsiemtna viscosmn \o the Department of Agriculture. This 
variation of action suggests thai it might have appeared as a 
weed on his property, and the known distribution of the species 
leave.'- fitfle doubt that it was a sporadic introduction in this case. 
(A. wscosum) grows naturally in north-eastern New South Wales, 
and was collected once on the lower Murray River in South Aus- 
tralia, the seeds evidently having been taken there by the flood- 
waters of the Darling River. Hence the old "N.W." record in 
the Key.) 

, The case of S/riculctea (Drafceaj imtaoi$J has been discussed 
in Vic. Nat. 67: 16S (Dec. 1950). 


In the tSktorim Naturalist of May 1919 (Vol. 36. pp. 11-19) 
under the title "N'otcs on the Census of Victorian Plants", the 
late II. B. Williamson went rather Cully into rhe question of 
these erroneous records. On page 17 is "List Mo. 1 (B), Plants 
Recorded for East Gippsland . . . only by specimens labelled 
wilh definite N.S.W. . . . localities, and no printed record". 
Most of these 45 species have lieen dealt with in iht present paper, 
hut two of them are really authentic records which should not 
have been included, napiely — 

Z'wrin cytisvitiw. Reported in FiygmcMit IX, I). 1)6, as "Oabo 
Island, Maplcstouc". ' 

Conospcrmwti taxifclium: Found by Mueller "abreast of. , Gaby 
Islund" in September 1860. 

On page 19 of Williamson's paper, there is' List. No. 4, with 
nine species given as "recorded from Genoa River". How the 
writer tauie to list these as such is not known, for it is true of 
One. only of them. Three were from Yowaka River, three, from 
Twofold Bay, and one from Braidv.ood; which seven should 
have been in List No. 1 (B) on page 17. The other, Pferis 
viHdta (longiiolta), was originally found ar Buchan River, not 
Snowy River as reported there. 

88 WakuiuciIi. N. A. LNrli. tff' 

A comparison of the text of the present paper with William- 
son's lists indicates thai at least 40 additional species could well 
have heen included in the latter. Fortunately, many of these have 
since been found in Victoria, so they constituted premature 
rather than erroneous records. Some were missed owing to 
errors in determination, and others because of incorrect data on 


In l'J28 came the Cm-sits of Victorian Plants, embodying addi- 
tions to our flora since Mueller's Key. and omitting most of the 
premature and erroneous records with which this paper has been 
dealing These omissions are listed, with reasons, on pages 70 
to 72 of the Census, and are mainly according to Williamson's 
recommendations of 1919. However, in several cases species 
were retained against that botanist's good advice; and, as well 
as these, there still remain about a dozen other erroneous records. 
These must he deleted. 

The list of omitted species contains two which should not be 
there, and must be reinstated : 

Bosaaca t»snla was collected by Mueller in March 3&S4-, uetit the 
mouth of the Snowy River, where it still grows abundantly. Beiitham 
cited the locality in Mara Attstraliensis, but the specimen ha* been 

Lhaavlla carulea appeared in Mtiollr.rV First Systematic. List 
(1S53) following authentic Victorian collectings (Mount Disappoint- 
ment, etc.), but was afterwards misunderstood as U. tufjis var. 
aspera (Benlharo) »«<) u. osfera o> the Third Syst. T..i»t. D. crmlga 
reappeared in Mueller's Kry, only to be agaill deleted at a later date; 
and was finally "discovered" at Mallacoota in 1^37 1 

In the Victorian of November 1931 (Vol. 48, pp. 
142-148) appeared Supplement 4 to the Census of Victorian 
Plants Here, a few premature records were authenticated", and 
Epacris hngiftota and Chloanihcs parthfwra were listed for dele- 
tion, the latter apparently without justification. 

The vital points in this paper may be summarized by listing 
these amendments to the 1928 Census of Victorian Plants — 

Delete — terrors in determination): 

p. .1 — flypotejris te>;u\folin p. 12 — Xclweiius ericiloriiit/ 

p. 14— Restio (irarilis p. 19- Spiculaca irritaljilit 

V- 23 — Persaonia bticeolota p. 57 — Proilanlhcw incisa 

Delete— (New South Wales »ptcimcnj) : 

p. 28 — SttpkoHia hentandifotw pi 32 — Aphanoticlalum rtsinosxon 

r. 34 — A each WtWftlfl p. 34- Jutltsonia rfurftri 

p 42 — Dodonaca calytina p. 44 — (.oMopotahtm pumi)loruvl 

p,46—BacltlnMnia myrtifolia p. 50 — Darwinia taxijolia 

p. 53 — Epacrxi lon.gifiora p. 56 — Chtoanthes patiriflora 

l> 57 — ProsttriiOieia violated p.64-"Calohs glMdufosa 

Remove lo paite 73— (ahtns) : 
ji. 62 — Aa^ifssfesiaiiti vitivtum, 

p, J'v — Dimt,?ll/i ca-iiilcn Sims . . . . S.. £". 

p. 22— ConosperiiMtit taxi folium 5m - £ , ■».(* 

p, 36 — Bossiaca ctitttJa Sieb. . . E» 

In conclusion, it may be noted that there arc also about a 
dozen premature records in the body of the 1928 Census, of 
species which have been found actually in Victoria only very re- 
cently, mainly during (he last decade. Also, there arc a similar 
number of the "erroneous" records of pages 70-72, which have 
been located as recently in this State. All these, as well as a 
great number oi entirely new records, arc to be dealt with in 
the near future m a full report of the botanical exploration of 
East Gippsiand, 

Finally, the writer would like to recoid his appreciation of 
the action of the Government Botanist, Mr. A. W. Jessep, in 
allowing the perusal of large numbers of specimens in the National 
Herbarium, and to Mr. J. H. Willis, whose enthusiastic interest 
and continual assistance in connexion with the project consider- 
ably lightened the tedious task of searching out the records of 
the eastern flora. 

(Excursion lo Langworrin) 

joining the excursion van at Mentouc on Sunday, 31st August. I ww 
very pleased to see it comfortably filled with Field Naturalists and happy 
to note the presence ot some children. 

On leaving the van the members were shown specimen* of the different 
species of PtcroslyHs they would find growing in profusion during their 
ramble. The. time we had at our disposal before lunch we spent observing 
and collecting specimens and were atuazed to find these orchid* so prolific. 

Tile species noted were as follows: Blunt Greenhood (Pierostylix 
cwtyi). Nodding Greenhood (_P. nutans), Trim Greenhood (P. coitcimia), 
Tall Greenhood (P. longijolia), Dwar,f Greenhood (P. nana). Banded 
Greenhood (P. vittato), Maroonhood, (P. pcdmicuhto-), It was on Mt, 
Grand that we found P vHlalo. 

We admired and, like I'lerostylis, appreciated the shade and shelter of 
the bower above our heads formed by the four spedes of cucalypts common 
to the district i Common Peppermint (E. iadivta>, Sdverlcaf Stringy- 
bark (E cinerca), Swamp Gum (£. ovato). occurring on heavier soil; 
and Manna Gum (E. viuiinalis) . growing on the t.aud. 

We alio found many specimens of the Goal Orchid HAtionthus (Jtfp- 
forwis). Mayfly Orchid (A cmifatus) but the Mosquito Orchid (A, ex- 
iffriv.s) had finished flowering. The Helmet Orchid was found by Mr. 
Atfcins, and to him we give thw honour of the day, for the writer had 
not known previously that this orchid occurred on the property. 

After luncb, a luff-mile wslfc atoug the road and a short climb brought 
us to the top of Mt, Gr»nd. We were very well rewarded by * hnc 
view of the Dandenong and Warburton Uangev on our left; to the right, 
the expanse of Wertemport Bay with the StresScckics in the distance ; 

90 Rl.'SM, E, J., Grrnnlwtuh Cahrc [ v {f*j *$" 

and beyond were the snowclad Baw Baws to complete the glory of the 

Heal mosquitoes were plentiful oti the mount, ami the blood lost in 
lilt battle; between the winced gnats and tint Field N'ats, would liavc 
made a li«lpfut donation to any blood tank, So down the mount wo. 
trailed lo regroup our forces on the- roadway, some to walk along towards 
Pearcedale, some to make a round trip back through the bush in seareh 
of Ihe one koala we always find. Jti this we were successful. 

In r,arts Hordc'ibc'i/io vioh'^cu carpeted the roadside in purple and 
twined np anything that would lend it support One Wedding Ouj.Ii 
(Nicinacnrpiis pi»ifcliiis) was found in bloom, raring ahead of its lardy 
■fellows, to greet the coming spring Beard-healh was plentiful and in 
full bloom Pink Beard heath (Lc-itciipflgan ericoiiiet) was more plentiful 
than the common species (L. imyafns). Wc found the Horny Concbusli 
(Iiofcyon crrtrfo/diytViw} here and there. 

• Reaching kfentone after a happy day wtth Phrosbiiir, the Host took 
leave of his aiiesls for the day with a Ffooslylls fvewell and said V I 
will 'Trim' 'my sails, and without being too 'Ctirta' will SO so-'I-Ongifolia' 
and run hoinr. to 'Nana'." — ILJ.R. 

Birds ait Ihe Langwonin Excursion 

As the weather was ideal for tins excursion the birds were active. Ihe 
highlight for the day was the nesting of the Golden Whistler (t J achyce/>h<)tii 
pectnralis > . The nest was discovered by Frances Pinches in tea-tree 
(Mela/nun sqitnnosn). The birds were incubating the cgp.s. and we watched 
them change over, the fcnule remaining on f^e ncstl for a longer period 
than the. male. It i.s generally considered that a brightly coloured male 
bird when on the nest would be a "draw card" for predators, but in uur 
opinion no more of a 'draw-card" Ihaii the female singing loudly from 
her |<ositon on ihe nest In this ease, however, the nest was fairly well 

A Yellow Robin (Enpsa/lria ttlMnVf/frt with young, and a Brown 
Thornbill iAcanthiza jwsiUii) building were the only other nests found for 
the day. We watched one of the Thonibills working on the nest, Fantail 
Cuckoos were in tfood voice and several were seen. Other cuckoos for 
the day were the Jlorsfield Prome and the Pallid. Orange-winged Sit- 
tellag demonstrated Bieir versatility by i;oiiig up, as well as down, the 
tree trunk. — Ron. FrUCUSO)*. 


in the "Lyn-bird" issue (September 1952) ol Vict, Pfaimatitl, Mr. 
George Mack refer*, on page <i&. to the former plentiful occurrence of 
the Albert Lyrebird on Ml. Tamborine, 35 miles south of Brisbane, and 
states lhat a few birds ire still to be found on the' mountain. T can confirm 
the latter statement, as a recent letter from Miss Irene Stoddart describes, 
with other interesting nature observations, her sighting ol a female lyre- 
bird that visited her delightful garden, situated quite dose to the well- 
known Kagle Heights Hotel. Miss Stoddart's own words are quoted as 
follows- "Last week (end of August 1 952) a porcupine (echidna) walked 
right tir Ihe side of my fence, and it was fun to watch the curiosity of 
the various birds. Then a kreoird hen railed here T wish she had 
trroqgiit lier mate. As one girl lo another it would have been interesting, 
but perhaps it' is best not to introduce your donah to a pa!" 

— H. C. E. SrtWriHt. 

(Photograph K, A. Hindwoad) 

Add Permanence to Vision! 

What better permanence could you have than a photograph 
... a true-to-life facsimile of an object or a scene exactly 
as you saw it — just as Mr. K. A. Hindwood saw this leaden 
flycatcher attending its young. And what better way is 
there to capture that permanence than with a modern Kodak 
camera loaded with Kodak film? 

You, too, can join the satisfied ranks of photographically- 
minded naturalists and thereby further your knowledge of 
nature through photography. Let Kodak experts advise you. 

Enquiries invited 


Melbourne Bollarot Geelang 
Branches in all State* 



Sunday, December 14 — Botany Group Picnic at Fairy Dell. Take either 
8.48 a.m. or 8.55 a.m. train to Upper Ferntree Gully, then Monbulk bus 
to terminus. Bring two meals. 

Fridoy, December 26 — Saturday, January 3 


The Horn Hut has 16 bunks with wire mattresses, in four alcoves with 
curtains, one camp stove, an open fireplace. The hut is provided with fire- 
wood, cookery utensils, first-aid kit ; no crockery or cutlery supplied. Per- 
mission has been granted to those people who desire to camp in the hut 
vicinity. Transport is by parlor coach direct from Melbourne to the hut; 
the coach will stay with the party to be used for trips on the Mount. The 
fare? is i 12/10/-. The Mount Buffalo Committee of Management charges a 
fee of 2/- per night per person for the use of the hut. This charge is not 
included in the fare cost. In the matter of food, members are to cater for 
themselves. The coach will travel twice to Porepunkaii for supplies : mem- 
bers are warned not to rely upon obtaining their full supplies from this 
source. The coach leaves Batman Avenue at 8.15 a.m., lunch at Benalla, 
reaching the hut at 4.45 p.m. Bookings, with lb deposit, stating whether 
members will need hut accommodation or be camping, with Mr. K. 
Atkins, Botanic Gardens, South Yarra, S.E.I. 

Preliminary Notice: 

Saturday, January ,?1 — Parlor coach excursion of 2(10 miles to Warburton, 
Noojee, via MacVeigh's and Loch River, return to Melbourne through 
Warragul. Coach leaves Batman Avenue 8 a.m., returns to city approxi- 
mately 8 p.m. Bring two meals. Bookings 24/- with Mr. K. Atkins, 
Botanic Gardens, South Yarra, S.K.I. 

No Botany Group meeting in December; no Botany or Geology Group 
meetings in January. 


So much is heard about West Australian wildflowers that perhaps one 
may be excused for asking whether Victoria can make any claim to have 
equally outstanding flora. 

Scenes of outstanding beauty which come readily to my mind are of 
incredible numbers of Purple Diuris orchids (D. punctata), of hillsides 
covered in winter with common Heath {Bpa-cris impressa), in red. white, 
and every shade of pink thrown in for good measure. Then there are 
acres of pure gold when it is Hakea Wattle {Acacia hakenides) time 
nexr Bcndigo. a sea of white blossom when the Coastal Tea-tree [Ltf~ 
iaspcrmum laeini/alnm) is in flower at Beaumaris, and gullies filled with 
gold when the Silver Wattle (Acacia dealbata) is in season. 

With our Christmas Bush (Prostanthera lasianthos) providing a sum- 
mer display and covering pathways with snow-like blossom, and hillsides 
covered in spring with flowers like the Wax-lip Orchid (Glossodia major), 
Purple Coral-pea (Hardcnbcrgia znolacca), Pinkeye (Tetratheca ciliata), 
Correa (C. rcficva), Hovea, and Fairy Wax-flower (Eriostcmon obovalh), 
I think that Victoria can claim to be well to the forefront where spec- 
tacular wildflower displays are concerned. — A.E.B. 

The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol. 69 — No. 7 NOVEMBER 10, 195Z No. S27 


The monthly meeting of the Qiih was held at the National 
Herbarium on Monday, September 14, 1952. The President, Dr, 
Margaret Chattaway, and about 100 members attended. 

The death of two members, Miss Collier and our Vice-President, 
Mr T. C. Biyan, was announced with much regret, and members 
stood in silence for a minute as a tribute to their memory, Mr. 
Bryan's death had occurred very suddenly, and our President, Dr. 
Chattaway, bad attended the funeral. Mr. A. A. Baker spoke 01 
Mr. Bryan's valuable work with the Geology Group. 

Mr. V. H. Miller spoke of the death of Mr. Lush at the age of 
91. Although ,not a member of our Club, Mr, Luxh was well 
known to many of our members as a keen ornithologist. 

The President announced that the Council had nominated Mr. 
A. A Baker as the new Vice-President to fill the vacancy caused 
by the death of Mr. Bryan. 

A volunteer was asked for to fill the position of Hun. Lanleruisl 
in place of the late Mr. Bryan. 

As the grave of Baron von Mueller was in need of being tidied 
up, any member able to give time to this matter was asked 10 
advise the President. 

Miss Wigan reported having received a letter from Miss Carol 
Walker, who has recently been in Spain, and also a letter from 
Mr. David Fleay, who was enjoying living at Burleigh Heads. 
The fate Sister Millbourn had requested Miss Wigan to present 
to the Club library on her behalf a copy of A Handbook of Forest 
Tries, hy Alfred J. Ewart, and this was handed over to the 

Reports were given on the very successful week-end at Mary- 
borough recently. The Maryborough Field Naturalists. Club was 
affiliated with our Club about a month ago, and Dr. Chattaway 
on behalf of our Club had presented .1 copy of WUdflwvers of 
Victoria, by Jean Galbraith, to the Club. 

Mr. Garnet advised that the National Parks Bill had been read 
in Parliament for the second time, and members were urged to 
procure a copy from the Government Printer with a view to 
bringing any unfavourable features to the notice of their local 
Member of Parliament before the third reading of the Bill. 

92 Field Naturalist s Club Procecdintis 

Vict. Not, 
Vol- 119 

Mr. E. E. Lord had attended a meeting of the Save the Dan- 
denongs League at Qlinda recently, but as unofficial representative 
of die Club. 

The speaker tor the evening was Prof. S. M. Wadham, his 
subject being "Drought in the Gulf Country." After a brief survey 
of soils, plants, rainfall and general conditions, Prof. Wadham 
spoke of various cattle stations lie had visited. Coloured slides 
gave a grim picture of the area during the recent drought. 


Garden-grown native flowers — Mr. J. S. Seaton, Mrs. D. Lewis. 
Ptcrostylis fonyifclia, Diuris punctata, Cymbidivm tmvianum, Aeicw'hsu 

gumni — Mr. V. H. Miller. 
Grevillea jvnifit-riw, G. fmcrontilata, Ihica'yptuj prcissiana — Mr. P. Fiseh. 
Six water-colour drawings of native orchids — Mr. H. P. Diclcins, 
Sivainsona, bekriaw, collected at Maryborough on Oct. 12, 1952 — Mr, .f. 
Ros Garnet. 


Cambrian fossils from the Macdonnel Ranges, gypsum crystals, cpidote 
pebble, brolite schist — Mrs. Woodhurn. 


A native knife from Rentier Springs, N'T. — Mrs. VV'oodburn. 



It is with regret that we record the sudden death ou September 10 of 
Mr. T, C. (Tom) Bryan, a regular attender at the meetings and excursions, 
whom most members will remember by his quiet disposition. 

A member of the Council and Vice-President at the time of his death, 
he had rejoined the Club in February, 1947, after some years in Roma, 
Queensland, and Molesworth, Victoria. He was keenly interested in geology 
and in photography, which was used to illustrate most of the Geology 
Group's activities, and he was always willing to record with his camera any 
subject which might be of interest to fellow naturalists. By regular: visits 
to an area at Black Rock (under observation by the Geology Group), he 
obtained a series of photographs of the erosion taking place on that part 
of the coastline. He also followed with interest, and assisted with, the 
activities of the Hawthorn Junior Naturalists. 

Mr. Bryan was 55 years of age and not married. The Club has lost an 
active member and a keen naturalist, and we extend to his relatives our 
smccreM sympathy. 

— A.A.B. 


Rare Parasitic Wasps 

By Tarlton Raw e?«t, p.hz.s-., 
Honorary Research Associate, National Museum, Melbourne 


The phylogenetic position of trigonalid wasps appears to lie 
between the iehneumonid and the vespid families; the wasps have 
the long filiform many-segmented antennae of the former, and the 
Stouter body and bright colours, black, red and yellow, of. the 
latter. Indeed, the general fades, with the exceptiun ot the long 
slender rlagellum, is not unlike diat of certain vespid species. The 
large quadrate mandibles are iridentatc or imadrklentate, and are 
a conspicuous- feature of the "'face". The females may he handled 
with impunity, for the sting is a true ovipositor, incapable of 
penetrating human epidermis. 

The literature on these anomalous parasitic wasps is very 
limited, and prior to the publication tti 1948 ot the author's .paper 
describing Taeniogonahs heterodoxies-, only two species had been 
recorded from Australia. — T, mucul(itns (Smith) from Queens- 
land, and Mi-utelarjonalos bonvieri Schullz, from Tasmania, Till- 
yard (1926) mentions an undescribed species from Stradbroke 
Island. Queensland. 

Observations on the biology were even rarer, until Janet W, 
Rgff (1934) published her notes on T. mOindatus Sin., describing 
the emergence of this species from the pupal cases of a Victorian 

At Lane Cove, Sydney, Norman Rodd (1946) was fortunate 
enough, to observe the femaies of 7*. heterodaxus Raym. ovipositing 
in the leaves of a Sydney peppermint tree (Eucalyptus piperita) 
and correlated the remarkable ventral structure of the female 
abdomen with the holding of the margin of a leaf. The sterna of 
males lack these opposing processes. 

it appears that vestiges of these remarkable structures have 
survived in certain bees, and there is little doubt that the unique 
abdominal sterna of the bee Meroglossa miranda are homologous 
with those of primitive wasps; the inconspicuous tubercle of 
PGro-iphecodes fulviventris is now merely ornamental Another 
unique character, doubtless inherited horn some waspish ancestor, 
probably saw-fly, is the remarkable flabellate flagellum of another 
bee, Clndocemp'v: bipectinatus Sm. 

Rodd was able to confirm the observation of Ciaitson. The. eggs 
of Fseudogonalys require to be ingested by saw-fly larva before 
they can hatch. Trigonalid wasps are extremely fertile, but it 
appears that tew larvae teach maturity, and males are Tarcr than 

94 T. Ravmknt, Naa JSces and Wosps [T*gj *£'• 

The present paper describes three new species of Taemognnalox, 
one from Victoria and two from Queensland, thus increasing the 
number of Australian wasps to six The author is indebted to the 
courtesy of Messrs. Burns and Oke. National Museum, Melbourne, 
for the opportunity to study these insects. 

The author's researches in the Australian Hymenoptcra arc 
assisted with a grant from the trustees of the Science and Jndustiy 
Endowment Fund, 


TYPE, Female — Length, 14 mm, approv. Black and yellow. 

Head transverse, shining, a few white hairs; face-marks two 
small triangular yellow marks lateral uf scapes; frnns coarsely 
rugoso-punctace, a spot of yellow above scapes ; clypeus shining, 
with many smaller punctures and white hair ; supraclypeal area 
, concave; vertex coarsely rugnso-punctare; ocelli close together; 
a wide, yellow band on margin of large compound eyes; genae 
polished, coarse punctures, labrum not visible; mandibulae large, 
black, tridentate and quadridentate, a large rectangular area yellow 
in middle; antennae filiform, ferruginous in middle, black apically, 
globose scapes amber. 

Prathorax black, rugose. , tubercles black ; mesothorax entirely 
black, excessively coarsely rugoso-punctate, divided into three areas 
by two large curved sulci; scutellum similar, but bituberculate : smoother, with two minute yellow dots; metatliorax 
with a median sulcus, coarsely, but more or less obliquely, rugoso- 
punctate; abdominal dorsal segments black, close piliferous punc- 
mres, golden hair, yellow hands on I and 2, and yellow linear 
marks on 4, maculae on 5 ; a fine longitudinal carina : ventral 
segments with the yellow band persisting on 2. 

Legs ferruginous, trochanters blackish, white Itai r ; tarsi mldish; 
claws reddish ; Iliad calcar reddish ; tcgulae ferruginous ; wings 
fuliginous on cuat,al margin | nervures brown ; cells normal for the 
genus; prerostifjma ferruginous. 

Locality : Cobunga, Victoria, February 19, 1947; leg. Alex NT. 

Type in the collection of A. N. Burns. 

Allies: 1 tinwutoim'Sm., which is smaller, with yellow dots on 
nietathorax, scutellum and post scutellum, and lacks the carina on 
the abdominal terga. 


TYPE, Male — Length, 6 mm. approx. Black and yellow. 

Head transverse, shining, a few white hairs: iace-cnaiks limited 
to clypeus; frnns transversely rugose; clypeus convex, butter- 
yellow, emarginate at base and apex; supraclypeal area concave: 

November I 
195! J 

T. Raymknt, New Bees ajirf IVntps 



96 T. R.wmknt, \'e.w iScts end Watt* {/vol. «'* 

vertex polished, a few large punctures; compound eyes small; 
genae polished, a tew shallow punctures; labrum not visible; 
mandibular tridentate, yellow, with a black cutting edge; antennae 
with globular ferruginous scapes, antennae filiiorm, black. 

Prothorax black, shining, many punctures and a few white 
hairs ; tubercles yellow ; mesothorax caniculate. shining, excessively 
coarsely punctured; scutelluni yellow, with a deep median, sulcus, 
large punctures; poslscuiellum black, with a 'small yellow band, 
metathorax with no elevated dorsum, black, densely and coarsely 
rugose-punctate, a few white hairs laterally ; abdomen ovate. 
polished, a few pi liferents shallow punctures and white hair; ventral 
segments black, polished. 

Legs y,cllowish-ferrugirious, hind femur cleat yellow ; tarsi 
brownish-black ; claws blackish ; hind calcar amber ; tegulae. brown , 
wings hyaline; nervures brown ; cells normal for the genus; ptero^ 
stigma brownish- black; hamuli about eight. 

Locality: Cvft. Tambourine, Queensland, lanuaiy 2~, 1950; leg. 
Chas. Oke, 

Type in the collection of the National Museum, Melbourne. 

Allies Not close to any described species, but easily known by 
its small size and entirety black abdomen. 

TYPE, Female — Length, 9 mm, appro\-. Red, black, yellow. 

Head laterally small irom above quadrate, reddish [ face-marks 
•,ellow, a lunate mark lateral of the-scapes, a macula above, and 
a larger one below the articulation of the scapes, frons black, 
coarsely rugoso-punctate, bituibeiculale; nude, clypeus black, two 
large yellow maculae laterally, numerous long white hairs, cmar- 
ginatc anteriorly; supraclypcal area deeply concave; vertex red- 
dish, coarsely rugoso-punctate, a yfillow macula below the median 
ocellus; compound eyes t,mall, genae red, suffused with black, 
rugose-punctate, a long lunate yellow mark on posteric-r orbital 
margin, a few white hairs; labrum not visible; mandsbulac black, 
broad, a large yellow macula in middle, left one tridetHaw, the 
light one qr.iadrident.aie; antennae long, filiform, ferruginous, black 
apicaliy and acute, scapes short, black, distally some yellow' 

Prothorax black, short, deeply impressed,, a minute yellow. spot 
laterally ; tubercles yellow •, mesothorax excessively coarsely rugose, 
black laterally, with reddish median mark, anteriorly two large 
yellow maculae, a few white hairs; scutellutn large, reddish, 
depressed in middle, two large subtriangular marks laterally; 
postscuteJIum reddish, twu yellow bands laterally, with a median 
mark shaped like two arrow-heads co joined at bases; metathorax 
black, with a median red patch, two large yellow marks semi- 
circular in shape, a few white hairs, large punctures, abdominal 

K<,V lB52 er ] T - RAVMF - NT - &*& BeeS ° n4 WO*?* 



<* T. IUymgnt, New Bees and Wasps [ v (£, *"'' 

dorsal segments ' covered with much pale hair, one red with a 
yellow band, two red and black with a wide yellow band, three 
black; four, five, and six yellow, with a black line anteriorly ; 
ventral segments black, three, four and five with a yellow dot 
laterally, the large second sternum with the yellow band of the 
tergum continuous. 

Legs reddish, femora black on basal half, tibiae yellow basally, 
trochanters yellow ; tarsi reddish-ferruginous ; claws bifid, red ; 
hind cakar red; tegulae reddish, with a yellow spot; wings yel- 
lowish, suffused with sepia about the radial and first cubital 
cells; wings covered with long white hair; nervures sepia, second 
recurrent obsolete; first cubital cell large, two small cubitals sub- 
rqual ; pterostigma long, narrow, amber ; hamuli weak, ahout six. 

Locality, Kurauda, Queensland, November 15, L951 ; leg. A. N. 
Burns. - 

Type in the collection of A. N. Burns. 

Allies: This species falls between T. heterodoxus, with a reddish 
head, and T, manilatrts Sn)., which has only small yellow dots on 
ihe black thorax. The. new species has the red. yellow and black 
pigment in about equal proportions. 

New Records 

Taeniognnalos ■maculahts Sin. 

A scries of typical mates and females. 
Heathmont, Victoria— March 7, 1935. A. K. Burns. 
Heathmont. Victoria— April 16, 1946. A. N. Burns. 
Femtree Gully, Victoria — March 7, 1932. A. N. Burns. 

The five species in the genus may be separated by the following 

Large, abdomen with .yellow band 1 

1 Head black, with yellow facial marks , '/'. maculahis Sim. 

Small, abdomen without yellow band 2 

i Head black, withuttt lateral marks . . .. __V. T, minutus Raym. 

Head red, large yellow marks 3 

3 Scutcllum red T. hete.rodoxws Raym. 

Clypeus black t , j. 4 

4 Scutcllum black ,, ,. , T, buni-ti Raytn. 

Clypeus with yellow maculae S 

5 Scutellum with large maculae - .. 2". tricolor Kaym, 


Clausen, C. P. Entomophaaous Insects, p. 56, 1940. 

Raff, J. W., Proc. Ruy. Snc. Viet,, W - 47-77, 1034 

Raymcnt, T., Australian Zoologist. Vol. II, pi. 3, p. 241, 1948- 

Kodd, N. W., Australian Zoologist, Vol. XI, pt. 4, p. 33B. 1951. 

TiHyard, R. /., Insects of Australia, p 291, 1926. 

N, ";«T h, ' r l T. Rayment, New Jicc.v unci Wasps W 

195Z 4 


Flo. ).— Front of head-capsules of five species of Trigonalid wasps to show 

the yellow patterns of the faces. 
No. 1. T. tricolor Raym. 

2. T. heterodozus Raym. 

3. The abdominal processes of the females serve to hold the margin 

of the leaf during ovipositing. (After Norman W. Rodcl.) 
A. T. minutus Raym. 

5. T. tnaettfalus Sill, 

6. T. burnsi Raym. 

Fig. 2 — Homologous structures of wasps and bees. 

No. 1. Abdominal processes of Australian female wasp Tatrniagonnlos 
kelcrodoxus Raym. 

2. Diagonal view of spine on second stcrnitc. 

i. Abdominal processes of Australian bee Mcroglossa miranda Raym. 

A, Rear view of process on third sternite. 

5. Rear view of process on fourth sternite. 

6. The tubercle on the second sternite of Parasphccodcs futviventrij 

Friese, is a vestigia! remnant. 

7. Abdominal processes of Gna/hoprosoph mariamlla ImMula'a. Raym. 

8. Abdominal process of undeveloped males of both species and sub- 

species of Gnalhoprosopts. 

9. Apex of abdomen of bee Goniocollctcs <=p. 


(Book Review) 

To those who have visited or to those who intend to visit Mt. Buffalo 
this little booklet will be welcome. The author, Mr. H. C. E. Stewart, 
is an active member of the F.N.C.V., and has wide interests in the field 
of natural history. 

After a note about early visits to, and reports about, the area, the writer 
proceeds to describe it as it is to-day. Several pages arc devoted to the 
botany of the plateau, with a special mention of some interesting specie* 
of ctrcalypts and wattles. The visitor is informed what wildflowers are 
likely to be found during different months, and where they may be scon 
to best advantage. 

A full list of native birds recorded for the area is given with the 
R.A.O.U. check-list number of each species for further reference- Bird* 
common in the locality are described in some detail. 

Travelling in other countries, Australians often remark the amount 
of publicity given to National Parks. For instance, at Yosemitc, U.S.A., 
not only is literature available, but in the centre of the park is a museum 
devoted exclusively to that area, covering its fauna, flora and geology. 
Though there is little possibility of projects such as this being undertaken 
in our National Parks for a long time to come, the collection of botanical 
specimens available at the Chalet, and Mr. Stewart's excellent work, arc 
steps in the right direction. This well-produced booklet is on sale at 
The Chalet, Mt. Buffalo, for one shilling. — E.S.H. 


During a trip to North Queensland last year I visited lite Mount Si. 
John Sanctuary it Townsvillc, where six salt-water crocodiles (Creci'dilvs 
pvrosui) arc the main attraction. The largest and best known <>f these is 
Barnacle Bill, who shires a. stnail enclosure with a ten-toot crocodile His 
(firth is trunendouj, and he must .be at least 18 test ft! length; he has 
put on a lot of weight, m lit gets practically no exercise I watched him 
from a distance of a few inches — through a wire fence. 

The sanctuary is believer) to be the only one in Australia where crocodiles 
breed regularly in caplivity. in a targe, marshy pond, three saurians Jive 
under practically natural conditions I was able to climb over the fence 
and take a photo of a 15-footer, asleep on a mud bank, during a week-day 
visit to the sanctuary. The crocodiles are fed every Sunday, usually by 
Mr. St. John Robinson, the owner of the sanctuary. Watched by a large 
crowd of tourists, Mr. Robinson entered Barnacle Bill's cage., and spec- 
tators gaped as he prodded the crocodile with a stick. Bill grunted and 
•snapped mid moved slowly forward. Dr. Robinson then poked * stick, to 
which was attached a large piece of nteat, into the reptile's mouth; the meat 
was quickly gulped down, The other crocodiles were Ihcn fed in a similar 
fashion. I watched the sinister head of a crocodile. Covered with green 
.rcjuatic vegetation, gliding slowly through the water and found it difficult 
to believe that I was not warchitig a crocodile in a jungle stream. 

Shortly before my visit a female crocodile, made a nest in an old galvanised 
iron tank on the edge ot the pool. When two eggs hatched out. two men 
entered the enclosure and attempted to remove the nest, but the crocodile 
Attacked them. However, she was securely held with rope and the nest 
was removed to a wire cage witit a shallow concrete pool where sub' 
.-.etjuently 90 per cent oi the eggs hatched out. The baby crocodiles were 
Iwo months old and 12 indies long when 1 saw ibom. The lively youngsters 
had needle-sharp teeth, toft bodies and green eyes. 1 found the little 
creatures very interesting and thoroughly enjoyed iny two visits to the 

J. Mouison. 


Twenty-fix people attended this excursion which was held in pleasant 
weather At b gorge in Beamy Cully Hoad fossil remains and the aurac- 
tivcly marked stone being quarried there were of interest. Along Ander- 
son's Creek the prevalence of Silver Wattle (Acacia dcalbata), Christmas 
Bush (Prostanth(r,t fasioKtnoi). Prickly Moses (.Acacia vcrixciihilo) and 
many other pl*nls was noted. A.ficr lunch a( the Gold Memorial and 
when the afternoon excursionists had joined us, a talk was griven hy the 
leader on the history of the Memorial Cairn and of gold mining aroun.j 
Warrandyte. The route followed alter lunch was to Fourth Hill and 
then o't to Warrandyte along roads where many lieautiful Cootaniundr;i 
wattles Mfimu nnt/ryixni)) were seen, 

A. E. Buoo;:s. 


1'fcimiturc ovd Erroneous Record* nj Plants (or i'iaorio— Vict. Mat. Oct., 
Page 83, line 31 : Delete "From Btaidwood : Halerayi* Mip>io.</r •>"<'. 
Crypt<m<lra scortcchinii" ; replace with "From Nungatu Mountain' 
Eltrocarfivs hn)of<ciolus. Rubin, tullri," 

The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol, 69— No. 8 DECEMBER 4, 1952 No. 828 


An ENlraorrlinary General Meeting oi' The Oub was helu in 
Jhe Herbarium at 7.45 pan. on Jvlovember 10, 1952, with Dr. 
Chattaway in the char.-, to discuss the application oi the "Save 
ihc- Dandenongs" League fur affiliation with the F.K.C.V. It 
was proposed by Mr. Lewis, seconded by Mr. Lord, and carried. 
Jthat the application of this League he endorsed by the F.N-C.V". 
Mv. Lord spoke to the motion, stating that as the aims and objects 
of both o "gam nations were similar, it was advisable to support 
this League, and appealed to members oE the F.N.C.V. to join it, 
Jhe subscription being one shilling. Dr. Chattaway then declared 
the Jixtraordinary General Meeting to be adjnunied. 

The. Monthly Meeting of the Club followed, with Dr. Chatta- 
way in the chair, and was attended by 86 members and visitors. 

Mr R. L. JenNZ, of 76 Green Street, Ivanhoe. who was- nomin- 
ated by Mr. and Mrs. P. Fisch, was elected a member and wel- 
comed by the President, 

Mr. Bechei-v,iise then proceeded with his leciure on Manus 
Island, illustrated by many excellent colour slides of North 
■Queensland, New Guinea, Guam, Manus Island, and various 
Pacific atolls taken during during a 12,000 mile journey with 
a squadron of Lincoln bombers on a training flight to Melius 
Island. Dr. Clutraway thanked the lecturer on behalf ot the Cluh. 

Dr. Chattaway reminded the meeting that Christmas cards., 
illustrated with ;i design of the Helmeted Honeyeater. were still 

Mr. Miller reported an acr of cruelly commiited by some! small 
boys, who had attached a blackbird to <i bomb, which they had 
lired, injuring the bird, 

Mr. Gabriel was present after a long illness, and commented 
on his exhibit 01 shells. 


BOTANV — Diufi5 froai Beacon sfield — Mis? Elder. Garden-grown 
jiaiive plants — Mr. Chalk, Mr. Miller. Collection including ¥ crHcordtas 
grown bv Mr. 1". C. Payne of Adelaide, exhibited by Mi. J. S. Seaton ; and 
fiymcnoipomm ftawoi from Botanic Garden?, exhibited by Mr. K. -W. 
Atkh.16, (Tliij is a xain forest :ree iron Queensland and N.S.W., closely 
related to the Pittosrioruir.s. It li suilxMe for the home g.irdeu, Ms t3i>:4 
growth, symmetrical jiyrnimdal iiabit, anil jjr-odeces profuse flowers wWl 
a fiangi)ial:ni perfume. 'Pie flowers are yellow, marked With red at the 

SHELLS- — Marine shells of the bOivjh Auinssiuiti f rum various localities 
—Mr C. J. Gabriel. 

PHOTOGRAPHS— Taken on MarybnrouRb tri|V- Mr. R. D. Lee. 

SNAKE.— He*! of taipan from .N. Queensland— Mr., 

Jfli K. fUflSHAW, !\lurx-ifia!: M 7 Vrmor Ri,,->- fid, P'voi.""' 


By Ron C. Kershaw 

The locality referred to in these notes is thai borclerjtug (.he 
western bank of the Taroar River, which :s known as Claience 
Point. Here two nest site? at the Tasmania n 'Rat-Kangaroos were 
found, one upon rhe slope of a hill of igneous rock near Kelso, the 
other upon the bank of the West Arm. They were separated by 
almost two miles of bushiand and orchard. 

Both of the nests described were discovered accidentally, the 
occupying animals drawing -attorn ion by their hurried departure. 
The nest at the first of the sites referred to contained two specimens 
of the Tasmaniaii Rat-Kangaroo or Bettong (BellQiir/ia amicntus 
W. Ogilby 1838). By reason of the conspicuous difference in 
build of the two animals it would appear that they were male and 
female, the female being of course jnuch slighter than the male. 
Characteristic head and body length quoted by Lord and Seott 
\A Synopsis .of the l''ertpbroti> Animals o\ Tasiwma, 1925. p. 249) 
is of the order of 400 mm. With this in mine, the nest appeared 
barely adequate t" contain two animals. However, it was suitably 
shaped and roomy inside, and no doubt the walls arc fairly flexible. 

This nest was situated in a small depression on the grassy 
southerly slope nf the hill. The- slope is liberally strewn wifh rock 
and loose stone. The hill is lightly timbered— principally with 
Peppermint (£. (tmyydaliua),, Casuarina ($he-<>ak). Acacia 
(Wattle and Blackwood), and Dogwood (Lftdfordia saUcwa), 
which is called Blanket-leaf Tree in Victoria. At the foot of the 
slope Melaleuca makes a dense scrub, punctuated by the Swamp 
Gum (E. opata). A targe tuft of grass dominated the nest, winch 
was built chiefly of native grasses, interwoven with small pieces of 
bark ard leaves. Leaves ard twigs resting upon it ill keeping with 
the surroundings made the nest very difficult to distinguish, even 
at a distance of only a Few feet. The opening was small and faced 
up the slope, while the interior was lined with leaves and bark, 
which had 'apparently been shredded by the animals, making a 
veiv comfortable floor half an inch in thickness, this bark appears 
to be from the Stringy -bark tree pnd is evidently preferred by those 
animals. The nearest such tree (to the best of the writer's know- 
ledge) was at least one* mile distant. It caimo'. be confirmed that 
the animals brought the bark this distance, but Lord and Scott 
(p. 249) reier to a nest obtained by Mr. Adams which was made, 
entirely from Stringy -bark carried for a quarter of a mile by the 
animals by means nf the prehensile tad. 

The writer released ^ further specimen of the Bettong from a 
rabbit trap some time ago. All of these animal.' closely approxi- 
mated the animal illustrated in Furred A-nhncIs of Austm/ui by 

m««£w^ R Kehsi . aw fatimtfcti irt famm> Tffsff ?Tm 103 

E!ii; TtoughLou (p. 1 5U ) . The Bedmig hl}p5 in a similar manner 
to rhe wallaby. This feature is an aid in distinguishing the 
Bettoitg. us flight. From the .Long-nosed Ktat-Kanguroo (Polm-oii* 
tridoctylns Kerr 1792 ), which, BSWg the forelegs in conjunction 
with I he hind legs, moves in \i hind of gallop. The latter animal 
is also somewhat more slender. 

Il may bo ot intereAt tQ note that the typical "thump, thump" of 
the kangaroo's tnnvemeni distinguishes his more leisurely pace. 
When thoroughly startled he and hij» relatives move silently and 
speedily, the smaller animals carrying themselves so close lo (he 
ground that it is difficult to discern their exact movements. 

A nest of the Potor&m was. (omul amongst undergrowth on the 
banks of the West Arm of the Tamar. This nest was situated ar 
the foot of a Stringy-bark tree upon sandy sml. amongst large 
tussocks ot grass and shrubs. The whole was overlain by a con- 
fusion of sticks, leaves and strips of bark, so that the animal 
traverse* a corridor ot twi or three feet under cover to the true 
entrance of the nest. This nest consisted almost entirely of grass 
carried from tbe nearby orchard. Some leaves were used on the 
floor, while on each side of the structure loose earth was built up 
to a height of several inches. One animal only was theie and, 
owing io lKl- Ibkk growth, was in sight for only a short time. 
However, its typical gait identified it as B specimen of Potorons. 
It must be noted also that the nests of Pntorom; and Bcltovfjia 
differ somewhat in materials used, the former favouring giass, the 
latter bark. Choice of snuarion differs also. The site ot the nest 
of ihc Potx/roux in this instance was kept damp for the most part 
by drainage and by the profuse foliage. Preference for Jibs lvpe 
of situation is noted by f>ord and Scott (p. 251 J On the other 
hand the Betlong. as already seen, appears lo prefer a site more 
exposed to the sunlight oil the outskirts, of bttshland, 

A commonly seen animal in this locality, a« elsewhere in Tas^ 
mania, is the Brush or Ked-neoked Wallaby (H'altahia nifoflrupa. 
pesmarest 1817), generally known as, a kangaroo in Tasmania. 
Tins ammal was formerly known as Bennett's Wallaby. The 
true Tasmania!! or Forester Kangaroo (Macropux taxmcmieyisis, 
Ije Souef 1923), although almost extinct at one time, has recently 
been reported in increasing numbers in the Midlands of Tasmania 
and is a much larger animal than W ' , rufuyriicu, The Brush 
Wallaby ranges extensively through brush and heath country and 
tt is possible to follow "runs" for long distances. Ar night these 
animals make excursions into orchards and pasture land, and they 
frequency do considerable damage to crops. The writer has found 
a lair, or nest, in long grass licneath u low-branched apple tree vn 
an orchard. For various reasons this had rot been disturbed for 
serine time and the animals evidently felt secure uiitii the writer 


104 R K">:rkhaiv, Mm utpiah ot Tamar Rivet, Tas. [ v {£, *£*' 

came upon the scene. During the late, dry, summer months the 
"roos" come into the garden. As many as six individuals have 
been disturbed on one occasion within a few yards of the dwellmg. 
A lair was found within fifty yards. The animals obviously set up 
home according to (he exigencies ot the moment. They are a 
problem, for it is impossible to scare them ;i\vay for more than a 
short time .and difficult to Keep them cut. Open seasons give some 
measure of control. 

As already mentioned, W- rttfogn'si.ti is known as a kangaroo 
colloquially, thus leaving the name "wallaby" for application lo 
the Tasmanian, or Red-bellied, Pademelon (Thylogule bi Hardier ii t 
Desmarest 1822). However, there appears to be some confusion 
in this respect, for while the Pademelon is correctly referred to 
as h scruh wallaby, the wriler has encountered the use of the name 
"pademelon" for the bandicoot ( Peremeles fpattfjt, Gray 1838) by- 
some country people. The writer has seen only two specimens 
at the Pademelon, and those in dense scmb perhaps five miles 
from Kelso. Occasionally "wallabies" are seen, However, some 
of these could have been immature specimens of W ■ rn-fot)risca. 

The Short-nosed Bandicoot (I sod-on ohestilus, Shaw rmd Nodder 
179/) is common m this locality, although it was apparently scarce 
sonic years ago It is said that it is necessary to catch all the 
bandicoots in an area before any rabbits may be trapped, and 
indeed, beinj; frequently ulnoad in daylight, they do appear to 
reach the traps first too often. Farmers, aware of the good these 
animafs do, release them carefully, but unfortunately a percentage 
die from internal injuries mowed during their violent struggles 
10 escape, whilst most suffer some injury, more or less permanent, 
to limbs. The Tas,maman Barred Bandicoot (Peramc/cs ginwu) 
has not been seen in this locality, but individuals have been noted 
within twelve miles. 

The wombat (Voutbfltus itrsinti.i lasntomoiskt Spencer and 
Kt'ishau 1910) is fairly common and entirely nocturnal. It dis- 
plays an unfortunate tendency to' tush across a road tight in 
front of a passing vehicle. Several have been killed ill this way in 
the last twelve month, mu) the writer was almost thrown from a 
bicycle by one .such ynjmal. All of the animals seen were dark 
brown, which is apparently typical of lowland wombats. Not long 
ago a rabbit burrow, situated in a pasture paddock, and from 
which the rabbits bad only just been eradicated, was enlarged and 
occupied by wombats. The discovery was made when the writer 
approached lo close the hoik. Although it was not interfered with, 
the wombats abandoned it witliin a few weeks, possibly owing to 
the exposed situation. Upon the path which these animals would 
probably have followed when approaching the burrow to occupy 
it was found a very young specimen. This apparently had fallen 

^TS^fc*] '<• Kei>s maw. Mannpialt at Tauter Fivtr, Tos. 105 

from the pnuch, fnr it was completely hairless and measured a 
sc»! n four inches It was dead when found 

Commonly to be seen is the Tasmanian or Dusky Brush-tailed 
Possum (Tnchosui'us fuliginosns, OgiJby 1831) Some of these 
animals leave the bush of an evening at dusk 10 make their way 
to the large trees adjacent 10 the writer's house. They appear to 
avoid travelling upon the giound unless absolutely necessary, 
making use of windbreaks of pine or gums and tea-tret. One 
individual came regularly lo an almond free, to approach which 
it is necessary tn rover jOine thirty yards or open ground and 
garden. This he would do at a great rate to perch high in the 
almond tree till dark, before making any further move. The 
attraction in this instance appear- to have been the nearby apple 
tree. lor lie did not come again following the removal oj the apples. 
Although tric.?c animals appear to go to a considerable trouble 
•to remain aloft when moving at dusk or durmg the night, the 
writer's observations lead him to believe that they spend a good 
deal of time on the ground. They do not appear ro move far 
from the trees without some incentive, but evidence of their 
passage is sometimes to he found many yards within the orchards, 
Damage tu fruit, however, rarely appears to reach serious pro- 
Several .specimens of The Tasmanian Spiny Anleaier (Tachy- 
tfhsffiis setosHS, Geoffrey .1 503 J have also been observed. These 
have all been seen during daylight hours, while some evidence of 
the passing of these animals has been noted at night, One of them 
v. as observed for 80U1C time at work on an ant hill the surface of 
which had been broken considerably, presumably by the animal 
Wuh rhe snout he'd close to the ground, the animal ''snuffled" 
about, quickly snapping up any ants with its tongue — a fascinating 

There appears to be some ground for the belief that the very 
dry conditions which have been experienced in Tasmania from 
]949 until the rams this year (1952) have resulted in an increase 
in the numbers of cerlajn of the animals referred lo m ihe present 
tintes This has undoubtedly beim tbe case with the rabbit. The 
wallaby (l>V, ntjofjrisca) is now very common, as also is the 
bandicoot, while the writer has noted increasing evidence of the 
presence of wombats in greater numhers, particularly during the 
•asl twelve, months. What effect the present bad weather (May, 
1952) will have is still, of course to be seen. • 

Fiom die Soviet controlled zone of Ceiwatiy comes a letter signed by 
iLlr- Haris Sadiilchcn of the Denclics K.nfr/mologiS'Che* lnstitut, cim^ratu- 
laiing TarJton Rajment on bra receipt of the Katural Hisioiy Medallion, 
and praising the Vuiorimi Naturalist, copies of wliich thfiy'ai'fc glad to 
add W their library. — L.Y. 


By C. E Cwinwi.iv. Department of Agririfttuic, Sydney. 

Between Christinas 19K, and isiew Veac 1530 suirte casual observations 
were made On insects associated, wild a Usbon lemon nee tCftrwt fimitwt- 
Osbfck) at l.ismnrc. N'.S.W. The tree had Lmkh attacked by several specie; 
of Mtsects. These included lom sipecies of scale iustcu (Family Cticcidiic) . 
TllC white ivax seale (Ccrnfrhf.tS* /i.'slrurlitt Nrwst j w»s niosllv louud 
as iiity while specks (which under a lens; showed an oval body wftli radiat- 
ing arms) along the midrib, or as white, more ot less hemispherical waji 
covered clots about the *i/.c oi j pm's bead on the smaller twigs. White 
loose- scale {Vtwtfh cilri (Coinst..)) was found along the larjjer brandies 
uiii] on the trunk. The mal? ■scale-, which gave a conspicuous white niMtling 
to the trunk, was about l/?5tli in. long and had three longitudinal ridges: 
ihe female insect was inconspicuous and dull brown, .shaped somewhat like 
a mussel, anil was about I /1 0th inch long The circular Mack scale 
(Chrysump)iuhs ficn.1 Ash.") was found on leaves I 1 especially' on the lowrr 
surface) ajid on Ihe (run. A lew specimens of Sonsclm loflsar (Walk.). 
the betnispherhral sn.ile, bad i-stal dished ihein.sclvesc on Ir-.iVes, 

Adohs ot the spirted clsus bug (fiif>i,i>»ht AuPn.i Biedd.j. a shiny gieen 
insert with n sharp sjiine nrOjreting from i v arh side of the prnuoCHni or 
shoulder, were several times observed with the proboscis inserted into 
fruits. The bronze orange bug (Rkoccacortt snlfventrts (Stal)) was aho 
in evidence. 11 could eject a particularly potent and objectionable fluid 
from til slink elands, which were lonnd on the \entr«il surface of lliu mem 
thora-*, lateral to the second pair of legs. 

A cockroach (Pfriplovcia nttstrofasiti? ( Fabr.'i ) wfts collected inside 
a house and. as a killing bottle was nnt available, it was nlsced in a small 
jar about & o'clock on the 24th, and was C.uile active next day. A spined 
citrus bn? was placed in the jar the same morning ("i.e.. 2Sth). but it; 
odour had no apparent ill-effects Oil the cockroach. At 1.15 p.m. another 
bug wa: added lo the jar. A few minute: later a broiue orange hog. 
which had *jerted scent when caplirred, ivas dropped into rhe jar. Within 
3 very short time (perhaps only a couple of minutes) the eorkenarh 
was unquestionably dead. As the lethal cflTect oi Ibis natural killing agent 
had aroused sonic curiosity, a pair oJ lig leaf beetles (tTii/reiii-rMiv .vuh'- 
pulla'a (Claikj) wens then added to the company; both weie dead hi 41 
minutes. The bronze orange bug appeared to be dead before 1.30 p.m.. and 
by this lime iiinvciocnt in the- spitted citrus pugs was limited lu a twitching 
of the legs. A floury miller cicada (Abriclct cuntkoxln Germ.) was then 
placed ui the iar and was Quietened down considerably by the effluvium, fart 
rhe. three bugs and the cirada had ici a very large extent recovered fioin 
the anaesthetic next morning. 

The following day (2l>th) at 5.40 p m. a female floury millet was 
observed on a green twig, [t had possibly only just started to oviposit. It 
was standing with the body slightly above the ts\-|g.. t v iir tip of I lit 'OSl'f'IIO 
just touching the surface of the baric While the ovipositor was inserted into 
the bark a regular pulsating movement was noticed m the segments posterior 
to Hie point of attachment of the ovipositor Most ot the time 1lie insect 
was fairly close to the twig and tlic ovipositor was. m an nettle angle id 
Hie twig and to the body of the insect, but occauuiiallv it raised itself so 
lliAl the angle of the ovipositor would be about 45 degrees to the insect 
and <c the twig. 

Gradually the insect's work resulted in a while cut shoivhift clcaily 
along the green bark of the twig. It was siitl engaged in ovipositing at 
6.30 p.m., but had gone at 6.<10, leaving- a white cut almost an inch in length. 
When exaniiited tinder a lens the rdocs ot the l»rk appeared to kivc beeh 

P««ri*w] c. JS. Cmawick. 'bitteH on UmoH I rcc ' 1G7 

pushed apart and the woody tissue was obvious. Broken strands <S the 
woody elements ttatc clear by seen, in two breaks -flfrfSUC the middle of the 
cm and at the end wfearu the cicada finished oviposiliou, 

late*, ivhop (his twig was split QP"Ht •I 1 *' PSBfi were found to be the 
same colour as the WDdti Mid .scarcely distinguishable with lilt naked eye. 
Two groups ol eggs wcic found, one below each grotip of broken woody 
elements. The. first firrnrfi contained 3§ ey^s, the -^rrmil 29 The egijs 
wore in ilie wood between the pith and the bark, at an angle tu the bark. 
They were banana-shaped, plain white, without ornamentation. 2 mm. in 
length, Willi a maximum width of .5 mm. The greatest rtculli of the egRS 
was 2 5 nun 

Male cicadas of Ihi'- species produced a sound -."••Inch was a mixture of 
at least two notes vciy close together. Those observed were resting either 
head up or nrad down on a limb or stem. The abdomen was raised when 
the sound teas being emitted and lowered when the sound ceased. One 
hi<cci was watched and noted to emit 3 series ok short chir-pi, followed by 
A, longer period of sound emission. i l»C number of chirps, varied from 
10 to 41, but 12 to 1<1 was the commonest number. When emitting the 
■short chops before the prolonged burst, the intervals between the last it* 
cfnips were appreciably shorter The long perio<i of sound emission would 
vary fiom 7 to 10 seconds as a rule and, curiously enough, the .sound 
<ntittod scented to coincide with those of two otlKT cicadas hi another tree 
nearly. However, nt other case noted the synehrOrn«itwu was much kw> 

The sound-producing organs could be seen 'vith a lens. The most eort- 
H'i'Uious external structures associated with sound production were the 
dark brownish, more, or less kidney-shaped opercrula which are attached to 
th<'. third thoracic segment between Ihe legs and Uie pleuia. BelOW «ac1i 
opei ciiltmi was ilie veutr»l cavity, which contained the folded membrane 
and mirror. The folded membrane, immediately underneath the operculum. 
was wore ti less oval in shape and had a yellow! border and a '•umber of 
liny ridges miming at tignr angles to the longitudinal axis of the body. 
The mirror, at the posterior end of the ventral cavity, was semi-circular 
in shape, quite transparent, very thin, and had an iridescent sheen. The 
tympanum or limbal, wIikIi produced Hie sound, was situated Ml the lateral 
ca lity and was most eisily seen from a dorso-lateral viewpoint. The 
tympanum was rounded externally and bure a series of small, paiallef 
ridges running at riglu angles to the longitudinal axis of the body. Wlim 
the note wax given oat an extremely rapid movement was ol/sei veil in ihe 
tympanum The tympanum in ihe living insert was cowied by tlitee thick- 
nesses of wirur, vu« once by the forcwing and twice by the hindwing. which 
was folded at the second anal vein. 

When handled after feeding a male ejected a. small volume of. clear 
liquid from Ihe tip of rhe body. A >ct from each side of the body was 
SUinrtcd, not directly behind but at an angle to the body, hut the ex^Cl 
source of the jet could not be ascertained. 

Quite a number ol specimen-, of the black Icafhopper Dcstijoba psittorus 
Walk, were found on the trunk and branches of the tree- Apparently they 
preferred to rest with the head downwards. When seen on (lie tr«- the 
insect was practically black with conspicuous white eyes. The abdomen 
was mostly green, with obvious while spiracles. When the wings were 
opened the lips of Hie fotCWHWa w'erc. lighter than ihe test of the wind's, 
■wbkh were blackish, the hmdwings had the distal IwK unpigmented, the 
anterior basal (juarter reddish, and the posterior basal uuarter blackish. 
The insert was guile prellily coloured when mounted to show the wing 
T.ialicm. It was able lo run sideways quite as rapidly as forwards, in 
/acl it appeared to prefer tlte fonnci incthod oi proRfssion It couM 

108 C. E. ChaiWick, i«sttl.f(ju Lemon Tte? Pvui. o"" 

hop strongly, but always appeared to choose to run sideways to escape 
capture, ii» fact specimens observed seemed to hop only when forced to do ?c 

A few stem Balls, do doubt those of EhvyIowo frIHs Git., were found on 
small stenis, but the original inhabitants appeared to lave departed 

Immature forms of an assassin bug (almost certainly the bee-killer, 
Pristhr^jDCH.'; pnpnensis Stall were observed moving stealthily among the 
leaves, with the antennae bent forward and downward at the distal did of 
the brst auiennal segment, One 5peiimi-n had a snwN blockish ladybird 
impaled on its proboscis. Quite often a solitary greenish Dolichopodiri fly 
was observed resting on a leaf, and a tew Queensland frutt flies (Onas 
frjttjjpj (Frogg.)) were also seen Odd adults of the small cittns butterfly 
Pap'lia anoctus Macl , also the large citrus butterfly P. atgeus eencus Don. 
and the common hover fly Xtwlhntjravnnn (frmidirorm.t (Maci|.) hnveTed 
around the tree also. 

The small brown cockroach Ullipiitliiin iimtraie Saus;.. one of it,r few 
cockroaches which will stay in the sun, was aLso found on lite tree, and 
several cockroach egg capsules, probably belonging to this spcaes. were 
attached to the leaves. 

Five species of ladybird beetle were seen on the tree Odd specimens, 
both larvae and adults of the 20-spolted ladybird Leis conf<irvn.\ (Boisd.) 
were found crawling over the stems and leaves. One adult was seen calms 
the soft body under the scale of the circular black scale which it liad over- 
turned; when it had cleaned out the unricrsurface of the teak it ate tlte 
remains of the insect on the leaf. Some specimens of tlic mealy bug ladybird 
Cryftoiaei»us mpwf'oicicW Mills , well-known as a predate* on mealy bugs, 
were moving about nn the tree. The hlack ladybird Si-ywiwrfi's thiifigaslcr 
Mtils., ami Rhi.:al>iu.% flitrtcllus Muls., a rather small hairy species '.vith 
brownish head and prothorax and blackish wing covers, as well as a steel 
blue ladybird. Orr«.i sp,, were also presenr. 

Odd specimens of a green plant -hopper f probably Siphav'a ocuia 
(Walk.)) were sufficiently agile to escape capture. One Lagriid beetle wa* 
found on a leaf, while some specimens of a brown shield bug, Prtedlomciir 
ttriqatus Wwd., were present on the limbs. 

Thus 24 species of insect were observed which appeared lo have either 
» direct or an indirect effect on the tree. Of the eleven members of the 
order Hcuiiptera, the four scales and the b'Oiizy and spiued citrus bugs 
are well-known economic pests, the cicada, tlic two leaf-hoppers and tbe- 
br own shteld bug arc sap suckers ; the assassin bug, by destroying the 
ladybirds, would probably he doing more harm than good in the present 
case, so that m this particular example the order Hevxiplcm would appear 
to be entirely harmful to the tree. 

On the other hand, of the six beetles five arc definitely beneficial types 
bat the habits u( the Lagriid do not seem to be known. 

Larvae of the two butterflies eat citrus leaves, and the gall wa.sp is a 
pest due to the galling it causes on the stems of the tret. 

Of the flies, the Queensland fruit fly is a notorious pest, and the larva 
of the hover fly feeds on scales and aphjds and must be considered bene- 
ficial. Doliehopodid flies are staled to be predaeeous on small insccls. but 
in this case no feeding of any kind was observed. 

As the cockroach could not ©e regarded as «ithcr harmful or beneficial 
there would be fifteen harmful and fix beneficial insects aild lllrCe Vhiclt 
coukd t»t with cerUirUy be consigned to either calejron- 

""mm**] n - a - VVakjfitx* East (Jifpsknrd Ferns 109 


By N. A.;i.i> 

Tn October 1944, in this iounlal (61: 10S), a re/ieu was mads oJ all 
Fern and Clubtuos.s s|iecies then known to acctn in FaU Giptisland. Three- 
additonnl species, Psilohtw >mdui>i>; £<VSpAijrfijit>i .:j>oliitim)\i}<i ami CystAp- 
trm (rat/Ms. found Mibscpiently iti the Hisrrici. wpic incorporated in "Vic- 
tor^" Fern and Cluhmoss Records'' (Vic A'o/ n5 215, 279) of January 
sik.1 April 1049 The notes presented hereunder bring the subject up to time 

HymwiuiphyHiwi pcttnUiin : The Stalked Filmy Fern is abundant, amongst 
granitic rocks and in tbe heads ot Sa-s«r,a.< gullies at Mount EJIcry, at 
about 4.000 i'ect. (J. H. Willis and N A W, 30/13/1951) This is pi 
andiuonal record for East Gippsland. 

Duodia osffi'fo I The Rasp Fern, though abundant farther cast, appar- 
ently dot; not occur west ot' the Benim River. Baron von Mueller re- 
ported it fiom llie Snowy River, hut the specimens witc of D. media. 

Lmdxaya iiucropltyll'i : The J.ace Fern prows also on granitic slopes of 
ranges ei5t uf Chandler's Creek in the upper CaiUi River valley. I.N.A.W , 
5/U/1950.) The record is cf pafticiditf iuieiest. fot the haUttat i* 
rutural; whereas the two previously reposed Victorian occurrences ap- 1 
plied to plants appearing where man's hand had produced somewhat arti- 
ficial conditions (See Vic. iVirf. 57: 162 and 62: 126.) 

The recorded I'lcriJoptiyla of East Gipysl3iid now totals 8/ species, 15 
of which do not occur elscVvbcrc in Victoria, 


'Week -end Com p. April 25-27. 1952) 

' Tin* country surrounding Brittania Creek lias been ravaged by faftfci 
fires. The sleep mountain sides art now covered With bracken, and :n 
pl«.es groups of the Rough Tree Fern (VfHkff iwJ.'ij/jjj smvivOi's of (lie 
f»r*s. have redressed themjclvrs with lou(r. graceful green fronds, 

When strolling along the mountain tot', we passed through occasional 
groves oi White Mountain Ash Eur.^lypirj refftuiiiK, Tlie dormant seed 
ha? generated since the fires, and the trees are now '30 to 40 feet in height, 
their tall, unbraiiclied, stendei trunks and overhead foliage, filtering ihe 
light, hring to nti'nd the cloistered interior of a cathedral, 

At the back nf the Melbourne Women's Walking- Club hut, the inounUiu- 
side w.u untouched by tire. Silvcrcop (E. \icbcrtoiu>), Messmate {£. 
/.•bliqua) :..nd an undergrowth uf Acaiio diffusa, showing early flowers, Grey 
Rverlasting ( lielichrysum ohrordatmn) . Mountain Ccirrea ((.orrca tawrrn- 
ttano) and Large Mock Olive (Nolclactt Icniiilotki) gave .shade and cover 
for tlt« lyrebirds »M Otlicr forest denizens. 

Brittania Creek and the mountain slopes on the north side were un- 
touched by fire. The creek bed is thickly clmlwd with Silver Wattle 
(Acacia ffVotf.-Jfii), BUc.kwoods {Attain mclanorylfm) , huge hoary Myrtle' 
beeches ( Nolhojtians cwmh'fihnmii) and Pcouaderris sp.. in places these 
plants were si rung together by Hie Wonga Vine (Fjndurcu ptv>dt</a-na) ; 
growing j it the nhade were tlie Soft Treefern (jMfltsomt! /mlctrrtica, Pul- 
tcnacv. sp.). Tall Rice-fiowpr (Pviteieti fryiu(rwu), Tough Rke-flovy«t' 
(fwidni (mj^iWrtJi Burgtni iKun.ico firdtmenhris). Rotigh Coptcsnia 
iCaP*0xiw> liirtrllo), White ftiderbcrry [$9Httntcuj! vcfudichandiana). Musk 
Dairy-bush (Olearia argtiphytia) and DerweiKl Speedwell (Veronica i/^'- 
ivcntio). In open places, the Foi-est Hound's-toiigiie (CynogfoMum iali^ 
fnli'.D'i) with its omnll pafe bine flowers formed huge patches of colour. 

On dry hanks along the creek road, plants of tlie Balm Mint-bu:>li 
(Prostctntlwro mclissifolia) still showed a few racemes of lilac flowers 

K- W. Atkins, 

Ufl E. E. Lom>, P/WW/iTS 7Yr<\< # Caribtvaih Vvt.*!? 


(Book Review) 

"Oik day in Rome early hi the twelfth century, in Italian unhlcniuu. 
t;'iktli& lime off Irr.jit his official duiies as bread- breaker ei l}ie Holy Sacra- 
ment 10 pursue his hobby., combined a number of volatile pife and pro- 
nounced the result hi* most tantalising perfume, li proved to be a sflpo 
fire formula and one that not only brought wealth to its makers, but 
fixed tbe inventor'? name, which he had given (he perfume,, in the vocabu- 
laries of many nations. The man's name was h'rangipaui. 

"The noble ladte/i of Europe, including the fo-nidablc Catharine de 
Medici, whose ijvoutite it was, used the perfume called Frnngipjiiii for 
ne.irly four centuries before the discovery af the western hemisphere, ft 
was a popular nod easily recognized scent, and OaC liat was quickly re- 
called to the early European sciHers in the Caribbean area by the frag- 
rance of a tree Ihey found growing there That they identified the sweet- 
smelling flowers oi this particular tree wit'n a famous perfume oi the'u 
homeland is the most persistent explanation of why tbe Pkvm-erias ars 
called Frangipaiii.' : So read the opening paragraphs of Flowering T»ccs 
of the Carihbcnn. a copy of which has just been received by us from 
— Ihc publishers, Rinehaxf, dud Company (Mew Yuri: >nd Toronto, un- 
priced l . 

It must surely be unique; for a book on natural history to be •conceived 
isi 3 bomber plane on- active service, and produced by a shipping coh'ipatiy. 
Yet such was tbe origin of one of the nicest publications oi its kind we 
hace seen, both as regards popular presentation and techiiical accuracy- 
One hundred and twenty-five pages, li by 9 Inches, include thirty full - 
page dehghtlul colour reproductions of flower and foliage from such tree 1 ; as 
Sf/irhtio'ca. Cosiin- fistula, Jacaranda, tbe Tnbcbinns, Flamboyant, &S£<rr> 
j'/riti'i/iio sfc(iifS(\. Etyilirinas, GHrlridia. Bravmetl and the Fiancipanis. 
Tl;e artist} are Birmai-n A \t\ Harriet PcrlchiU. 

The story of Iheic trees which have been selected as representing lhe 
cream of tropical and vub-tropical species as Ihey occur in nature, is the 
rvortc oi many botanisU, horticulturists and foresters, co-opSed under the 
vcrsaulc editorship of Alcoa Steamship Company'.-, officer Paul Knapp. 
A vast amount of historical, geographic, economic and cultural informa- 
tion, together with quaint legend Mid lore, is very well presented The 
Bibliography lists no fewer than 14.3 works, and there is a glossary 

A book r.uch as this not only deserves a place in any tree-lover's 
library, but is at once a sharp reminder of the wealth of like material in 
Ms, <onntry calling for author and publisher to tell of, and tell not only 
1he world at Urge but our own people also, who too often, it must be 
confessed, ary wholly ignorant of AuptraliH's rich indigenous flora. Surel/ 
such flowering trees as Firewhecl-trre and Waratahs, Ar.acia9 and Banksia', 
enmpafe. favourably Willi those lound anywhere tlse in the World. What 
grander medium, of. idverrising .iur owtl flora, ihau a publication such as 
Flowering Trees of the CeiribhconT 

— E. E. Lord. 


THE ANT-EATER. --Here in Auckland small bro'.s p ants run up and 
down my wire ciollie-s-litics in hundreds. When the clothes are bung out, 
I go Along ihc line; crusfims the insects with a cloth, which I then throw 
down. My cat runs up. roils on the clolb, and is quite crazy until be has 
licked up nil tbe ants. Why should they attract him? Do other cats 
behave in this fashion? — J. Maia^e, New Zealand. The Countryman, 
Spring. 19S2. 

The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol. 69 — No 9 JANUARY 8, 195$ No. 829 


The mouthly meeting of the Chili was held at the National 
Herbarium on December S, 1952, with Dr. Chahaway in the 
chair, and about 180 members and visitors present. 

Messrs. H. A. Watts and R Parkin were ejected tn nrdinaiy 
membership, and welcomed by the President. 

Dr. R. T. Patton delivered a most interesting lecture on the 
ecology of the Bogong High Plains, illustrating its geology and 
botany with a series of graphic lantern slides. Numerous ques- 
tions were asked by members and ably answered by the speaker, 
whom Dr. Chattaway then thanked on behalf of the Club. 

Mr. K. Atkins reported that the Christmas excursionists to 
Mouih Buffalo would travel by tram; and Mr. Geo. Coghill 
observed that he was a participant in the first Club excursion to 
that avea, 50 years ago. 

Mr. A. A. Baker commented on an aspect of Dr. P'atton's 
lecture — the influence of man on nature; and, in discussing Uis 
exhibits, brought out the point that the geologically interesting 
Clifton Hill quarries were being filled by the dumping ol rubbish. 

Dr, Chattaway announced Miss J. Raff's donation to the Club 
library of the book "Natural Historv in Zoological Gardens" by 
F E. Beddard. 

At the adjournment of the meeting the presidtmt . cordially 
wished members n Happy Cbnslmas. 


BOTANY.— JJorynuthcs pnhncri (Giant Spear Lily) — Mr. Atkins. 
GunJcii-Krcuvn native plants — Mr. 'Seaton. 

SHELLS— Clam Shell? from New Hebrides— Miss E. Kaff 

GEOLOGY— Zeolite: and Carbonates from the Colling wood Quarry— 
Mr. Baker. 

ZOOLOGY. — Babv Biack Snake from Healeaviile district— Mr. McQueen. 

MISCELLANEOUS.— Photographs of Fungi— Miss Carburry. Paintmos 
of orchids found at Woodend — Mrs. McQueen. Hair combs and necklace 
made and worn by natives of New Hebrides— Miss E. Raff. 


When 1 ebattcd with an elderly resident of Warrandytc back- 
ground vim steeped 111 8'old lore, and whose father supervised the tutting 
of the Pound Bend tunnel, tie expressed the opinion (hat far more gold had 
been obtained irom tb<r Warrandyte district than is commonly supposed- 
He stated that alluvial gold worth one million pounds had been obtained, 
and that rhe Caledonian mine alone had produced forty thousand ounce; 
of gold. On the other hand forty tons of ore crushed from the Fourth 
Hill Tunnel yielded only half 311 ounce to the ton, while mines at "Golden 
Point' 1 where the memorial cairo is situated were stated to have produecrt 
«ood workable gold. Have ally other readers information on this subject? 


112 K. W. AtKiNfl. Mitchell AVer (;«,& [ V £j. If 


By K W, Atkins 

During December 1951, three members of the Club — W, Day, 
E Dakin and myself — visited the Mitchell River Gorge, ahum 
175 miles east of Melbourne. Hie gorge extend* over a distance 
of 13 miles, as the crow flics, from Tahbcrabbrra in the north, 
southward to the Glcnaladale flats which arc about 1 3 miles 
north-west <•£ Bairnsdalc. (See locality plan.) 

At 2 p.m. we alighted from the train at l.indetiow South, 3tul 
by sunset were camped by the ruin* of the Glenaladalc weir. 
Ihh structure was erected some 65 years ago to supply Bairns- 
dale with wnter and to irrigate the intervening country. It was 
wholly conslrticled of huge blocks of silicious freestone secured 
from a quarry on (.he western side of (be river. 

Next morning wc arose early for the hike 1o Dcadcock Creek. 
a distance of two miles. At first it was easy going through open 
cucalypl country, but the latter halt of the jnumey was. notable 
for a inyrtaceous shrub, Kttnsea pcdunculans, which soon be- 
came thick and a .solid fronl rrf its willowy branches barred our 
way The Disk was hot, slow and vexing as we literally "bulldozed" 
our way through the high tangled growth. (This shrub is causing 
considerable alarm in the Bairtisdale district, as it is rapidly 
taking possession oi grazing areas.) 

When the gorge made a dramatic appearance through thts 
dense growth, a thankful party stood on its brink and gaxed down 
on the Mitchell 'River, a silver gleam flowing between Kanooka- 
line'd banks si's hundred feet below. 

After finding a track clown to the river, we wended our way 
up the bed oi Deadcock Creek, Two hundred yards upstream 
from its confluence with the river, this creek has an impressive 
magnificence. From wall to wall of the gorge is a rock ledge. 
30 feet wide and 20 feet high, over which the creek falls. For 
the fifSt hundred feet (he gorge walls arc a shining rose-pinlc. 
due to a well-developed iron oxide vanush. and consist uf s,ilicinus 
sandstones oi sedimentary character, with well-developed vertical 
joint planes. On this rest ihe rising walls of conglomerates, mud- 
stones and shales, with trees perched perilously on abrupt ledges, 
clutching scant footholds while huge overhanging abutments 
seem liiicly to crash down upon one. in the ereekbed. 

We camped, during our slay, in a large cavern under the. 
left-hand bank. This cavity is roofed by an overhanging ledge. 
30 to 40 feet wide and 20 lect high, which extends for !50 feet 
upstream before making a sharp turn and finishing under the 

Eagerly wc made journeys of exploration. Our first was to the 
"Nargun's Cave", readied by walking upstream along the boulder- 
strewn creek bed. At our approach, "Gippsland Crocodiles", a 



K. W. Atkins, Mitchell River Gorge 


type of water-lizard, slithered into the occasional pools. Huge 
buttressed Kanookas of fantastic shapes sprawled across the 
creek bed, each hoary giant clothed with brownish-green moss 
and with Kangaroo Fern creeping for yards along the branches. 
The silver-grey lichen, Usnca angulata, of fascinating appear- 
ance, grew here and there in large conspicuous festoons. 

Glorious in these gorges are the lianas — Scrambling Lily, 
Twining Silkpod, Stalked Doubah, Jasmin Morinda and Wonga- 
vine — scrambling every where ■ along the creek bed, their roots 
and stems forming contorted loops, entangling and stringing 
together the Lilly-pilly, Blackwood, Mock-olive and Pittosporum. 

At the Xargun's Cave there is a perfect cul-de-sac,, with a 
great overhanging rock ledge stretching from wall to wall of the 

Den of the Nargun — as seen by the editor, in 1947. 

[A similar drawing, made by Howitt nearly 80 years ago, was figured 
in the Vict. ,Viif. of August 1923 (40: 79). Comparison of tlie two sketches 
shows perhaps the most remarkable change that has taken place over the 
years. In Howitt's day there were but two comparatively slender stalactitic 
pillars from roof to floor of the cavern; but since then, the whole of the 
central mass has been deposited and an additional column has been added 
on the left side.] 

gorge. To one side great stalactitic masses form a curtain of 
limestone from the ledge above to the margin of a great pool 
below. The outer face is streaked with orange owing to the 
action of a lime-loving alga, and behind the curtain are pools of 
lime-impregnated water containing leaves and twigs in various 
stages of petrification. Small stalactites, many four inches in 
length, stud the cave roof, and on the floor are corresponding 
stalagmites up to a foot in height. 


K. W. Atkins, Mitchell River Gort/c 

rvirt. Nat. 

L Vol, 69. 


According to aborigines of the Mitchell Valley, this was the 
"ngrung a narguna", the den of the nargun, a being half stone 
and half human. It was said to turn back a spear or bullet so 
as to injure the attacker, and that it was fond of blackfellow as 
a diet. 

The contorted and interlaced Kanooka branches made journeys 
along the river banks very arduous, and had often to be removed 
to make a pathway. Higher up the steep banks, prickly stems of 
Bursaria and Austral Sarsaparilla, and masses of stinging nettles, 
drove us many times back to the water's edge. 

The gravelly river banks were covered with Black Wattle, 
Tantoon, Woolly Tea-tree and Plum-leaf 1'omaderris. The only 
sandbank in the vicinity featured the Blue Olive-berry, Common 
Fringe-myrtle, Prickly Beard-heath, Swamp Paper-bark, Prickly 
Geebung and the Narrow-leaf and Hazel Pomaderris. 
On one of the huge silt banks 
we found the uncommon nat- 
ive poppy, Papaver aculeatum, 
a plant two feet high wilh 
rough silver-grey foliage and 
inch-wide orange-red flowers. 
In this region, apparently so 
suitable, no epiphytic orchards 
iiccur*,and only one terrestrial, 
Custrodia scsaiitoidts, the Cin- 
namon Bells, was found. 

Bird life was limited in 
quantity and variety ; Curra- 
wongs called frequently, and 
occasionally the raucous cries 
of Cockatoos floated down 
.from above the gorge. Many 
times I gazed at the Pastern 
Whip-birds which, unlike the 
same species in the Dande- 

nongs, do not remain hidden here. A pair were apparently nesr 
ing in a patch of Kanooka and scrub, which we frequented, and 
they often entertained us vocally from a few feet above our heads. 
On returning from one of our exploratory excursions, we 
found that visitors to the camp had, during our absence, left a 
jar containing the "visitors' book". Some pertinent extracts there- 
from are : 

As the custom of wall-writing is abhorred hy two of this trio, a 
visitors' book is here provided as a substitute. Signed: Flora McDonald, 
Joan Anderson, M. Elizabeth Williams. 

*[The Butterfly Orchid, Sarcnchilus aitstrolis, is known to occur in the 
gorge area, at Iguana Creek. — Ed.] 

First visit hy while man, Howitt's party, the Nat-gun's Cave re- 
discovered in IV04 hy Tom and Dick Morrison, Charlie Booth and 
the writer 

The "writer" was L. D. Porteous, who apparently visited the 
area many times from 1904 to 1919, and again in 1929. 1934 
and 1949. One of his later entries reads: 

The chief change is in regard to the present lack of birds; it was 
once the hahitat of man;, lyrebirds and bell-bird colonies, with wombat* 
(still in evidence), rock wallabies and snakes making up the common 

E. Grace Du Ve, whose first visit was during the 1920's, later 
recorded that: 

A very noticeable point of change during 1he lasit few years, apart 
from the departure of the bell-birds, is the prodigious jjrowth of 
Manuka, the scrub on the approaches to the s-iip-tails above the gorge. 

The plant referred to is not "Manuka" blrt the Burgan (Ktinsea 
pcdimcHians) already mentioned early in this article. 

The first white man's visit, referred to by Porleus was that 
of Alfred William Howitt hi the 1870's. He travelled with two 
native friends — Turnmile, a muscular active young black whose 
name meant "one who swaggers", and Bungil Bottle, an older 
mau noted for his extraordinary length of leg. The three 
'ravelled from Tabberabbora down the Mitchell in two flimsy 
aboriginal bark canoes. Howitt. waa the first aboard, stepping 
gingerly into tbe larger vessel, where he sat carefully clown upon 
a piece of baric respectfully provided for his comfort. Bungil Bottle 
came aboard with equal camion, folding himself up in a manner 
suggesting that he had several unusual joints. Then Turnmile 
launched his craft. The journey was interrupted frequently by 
cascades, and while the white man clambered over rugged cliffs, 
the natives either coaxed their frail craft through the turbulent 
waters or carried the vessels on their heads- On the second day, 
Turnmtle's canoe was wrecked on a hidden rock, so Howitt 
decided to finish the journey overland. 

Our holiday over, we regretfully departed for civilization, and 
comfortable beds; but some day we shall return to this small 
patch of unspoiled wilderness. Our most vivid memory perhaps 
is of the Currajong trees seventy feet Or more high and wiih 
trunks measuring over fifteen feet in girth. 


CtoM, R H., Melbourne Wolkcr, 13; 13. 

l-aiton, J, Q., Muting and Ccoto'fknl Jonvnal, July ]938, p. 73. 

Thomas, F. J., i'kt, Nm., 28: ]§9. 

Gr^cn, H., Vid, Nal , 40: 77. 

Dalev, C„ Kir/, Nat,, 43 : 298. : 


H. M. R. StIEP, Notes on Aiutrolian Orchids 

rVict. Nat. 

L vol. as. 


By lhe Rev. H. M. R. Rufp, Willoughby, N.S.W. 
I. A New Species of Dendrobnan from North Queensland. 

D. ELOBATVM, sp. nov.' 

Plouta rolmsta; pscudobidbis phiribus, usque ad 60 cm. aIUs 4 propc 
medium c. 16 mm, luiis. Folia ovota, inacgueilitcr emarginata, 5-6 cm. 
Innga, 3 cm. lata, Procter pseudobiilbum altcrno. Flares rnccmosi, comprtrate 
porvi, pallcntes aim vittis hi;t;ituxfinalibv,s inscornbris. Scpalum dorsalt c. 
]6 mm, longum. ad basin 6 mm. latum, acuminatum. Sepala- latcrolia pnuhw: 
lonniwu, cum. colutnnoe pede calcar magnum obtusmn formantia; calcar 
ad basin 1 cm, latum, Pclaln angusla, 2 cm, longa, Labcllnm brevhu qtumi 
sepn'a, elobatum, brcvissime mujuiciilatnm., c, 13 turn. Ignguw, ad basin 
aliqiKiifo angitshtm, propc medium 5 mm, latum, acuminatum, rigidum, 
maculoswii: Columna 10 mm. longa, utriuquc ahita; ahe supra projectoe. 
Stigma late nbln>tgitm. 


A — a flatter from the front, xl$ 
B — a flower from the side, xll 
C— lahellum from the frgiu. x 2^ 

A robust plant with several pseudobulbs up to 60 on. high, 
and about 15 mm, wide near the middle. Leaves ovate, unequally 
emarginate, 5-6 cm. long, 3 cm. wide, alternate along the greater 
part of the pseudobttlb, coriaceous. Flowers racemose, not large, 
pale green or whitish with red-brown longitudinal bands, Dorsal 
sepal about 16 mm. long, 6 mm. wide at the base, acuminate. 

'w" y J H M R ' B«ttfcM#< o» Atttwlim Onhtts tl? 

Lateral sepals a Hide longer, with the foot of the column forming 
a large obtuse spur 1 cni. wide at its base, Petals narrow, quite 
2 cm- long, Labellum shorter than the sepals, lobe-less, very shortly 
c-lawed, about 13 mm. long, rather narrow at the base but widening 
to S mm. about the middle, acuminate, somewhat rigid, blotched 
with reddish or purplish brown, the longitudinal ridges of the 
disc obscure. Column 10 mm. long, winged on eirher side, the 
wings projechng above as high as the anther Stigma broadly 

Growing on Wcrnm r.lota in the mangrove scrubs of Trinity 
Bay, Cairns district. N. Queensland {leg. S F. Goesshug- 
m." Cloud, August 1952— TYPE, in NSW). 

This new species is very distinctive The plant itself somewluc 
resembles a small D. muinlalmu, but the flowers are unlike those 
of any other known Australian Dendrobe. The perianth segments 
though narrow and rather long, show no tendency towards undu- 
lation or twisting, as in I), uiuiulalum. D super (new;, D. Jahanms 
and other North Queensland species. The labeHum fs quite devoid 
ot lateral lobes, Mr. Si. Cloud" calls attention to the unusual 
colouring of die vems of the cauline leaf-bracts, and, on a smaller 
scale, those subtending the flowers, The bracts themselves are 
pale lilac, the veins deep lilac throughout. Four plants were dis- 
covered; they were Dot growing on the mangroves, but were 
about 16 feet up on M-'onnia alatct, locally known as Swamp 

IT. Ptsrostylis furcate Lindl. 

Ill the Victorian Naturalist, Vol. 65, March 1949, the late 
W. H. K'icholls described and figured this species as "an elusive 
orelud", from Tasmania. Subsequently he published a supple- 
mentary article, also illustrated (ibid. 66, April 1950). The 
present writer, during a residence of three years in Tasmania, 
frequently found what he believed to be Lindley's species, but 
it was very unlike the plant shown in Nicholls's first article. His 
figure in his second article is much more like the plant I knew. 
But there was already existing, in my opinion, an admirable 
plate of P. fitrcatii accompanying an article by die late Dr. R, S. 
Rogers in Pror. Ray. Sec. Victoria 28 (n.s.), 1915. Curiously 
Nkholls must have missed this article, for he Joes not mention 
it. The plate was drawn by the late Miss Fiveash, and it depicts 
Lindley's species exactly as 1 knew it in Tasmania, and as it 
was collected there some years later by Mi\s. P. R. Messmer. 
Nicholls alludes to the action of E. D. Hatch and the presem 
writer in referring Hooker's New Zealand P. vikromega to 
Lindley's specie-s. I received New Zealand specimens at that time 
which 'might have served as models for Miss Fiveash's plate. 
The Russell River plants, collected by Atkinson and figured b> 

m H. M. R. Row. Nottt wi- Atatralian Oreitiri* [ v {£ t *"• 

Nicholls in his first article, appear to me to constitute a vtry 
discinct and unusual variefy, with smaller flowers, more filiform 
point to the lateral sepals, anil a very different curvature of the 


III. Thelymitra pUTpurata Rupp in Pine, Linn, Soc, NSW. 
70: 288 (1946). 

In Part. I of his splendid (but, alas! posthumous. i work on 
the Orchids of Australia., the late. W. H. Nicholls, without any 
explanation, gives this as a synonym of 7". i.xioidcs Sw. I am 
quite unable to accept his opinion on this point, and in niaui- 
lainlng the specific rank of 7", purptirata I am supported by 
competent and careful observers in Nc,\v South Wales and Queens- 
land who have collected and examined specimens. I have nothing 
to add to die description and drasvin^s in the. paper cited above, 
except lo say that the known range of the plant now extends 
northward to Maryborough in Queensland (W. W, Abeil), and 
southward to Nabiac in New South Wales (L. Gilbert). 


(a) Tkelywitra trupcatu Rogers. Woodford, Blue Moun- 
tains! NSW., Miss 1. Bowden, 10/3950. First record 
for N.S.W. This is another species which the late VV. H. 
Nicholls considered to be merely a variety of T, Lxioides; 
but I have always regarded it as a valid species. Miss 
Bowden's specimens agree perfectly with some received 
from the late Dr Rogers, collected in South Australia. 

(b) Thelymitra Intcocilium R. D. Fit2g. Woodford, N.S.W. 
Mist I Bowden, 11/1950. Previously only recorded 
from South Australia and Victoria. 

(c) TUclymitra clwsuwfjama Rogers- Castlec.rag, N.S.W. Mr.v 

Mai'j o ry I .nader , ' 1 0/ 1 950. 

(d) Microtis hipulviviirix Nirh Jannali, near George's Rivpi, 

N.S.W. Miss 1. Bowden, 8/1950. New for N.S.W. 

(e) PrasQphyUum striatum R.Br. Uaptn, S. Coast, N.S.W, 

R. O'Meley, 5/1952. Most southerly record known. 

(t) Prasophytlirin plumnsum Rupp. The Pyramids, Stan- 
thorpe, Queensland. MUs T. Ge.mme.ll, 3/1951. A surpris- 
ing discovery, as the species' was known previously only 
from the environs of Sydney. 

(g) Spicule* Imaiiaiw (F. Mue'l.) Scbltr. ML Victoria, Bluc- 
Mountains, N.S.W.' Miss T, Bowden, 2/1951, This inter- 
esting little orchid had not been found m N.S.W, for many 
years; Miss Bowden reported <> as fairly plentiful near 
Mt. Victoria. 

''Thm'"] "• M R R'"''V Ar«J« eft Australian Orchids H9 

(h) Caladimia filamenlosa R.Br. Near Camp'belllown, N.S.W 
K. Bursill, 9/1950: Ahercrombie Caves, N.S.W. , K. 
Matr, 10/1951; Harve>' Ra , Centr. Western Slopes. 
N.S.W., G. Althofer, 10/1951. Not previously recorded 
from any of these areas. 

(i I PterosivHs alpina Rogers Point Lookout, at the head of 
the Macleay River, N.S.W. Fi Fordham. 1/1951. An- 
other surprising record, the species not having bee" 
reported previously north of Kosciusko. 

(i) Pti'rostylis hit-due Nidi. Originally believed to be confined 
to southern Queensland and the extreme N. of N.S.W.. 
tiiis species is now known to have a much more extensive 
range. The following records have not previously been 
published:— Tcmgal. N.S.W.. Miss 1. Bowdcn, 9/194S; 
Mt. Kembla, S. Coast. N.S.W., W. Schmidt. 8/1950: 
Dapto, N.S.W., R. O'Meley, 8/1950; Springbrook, Q, 
W. W. AMI. 3/19*9: Ku-ring'-gai Chase. N.S.W., Br. 
Melville and party, 8/1952. 

(k) Ptcrostylis daintreivm F. Mucll. Another species the 
known range of which has been widely extended. Nov 
records: Granite, near Stanthorpe, Q., Miss T. Gemnull, 
4/1952: Khyber Pass near Ryhtor.c, K.S.W'. G. Altho 
fer, 5/1952; Dapto, N.S.W.. R r O'Meley. 5/1952, 

(\) Pterostylu harbata Ltndl. Abercmmbte Caves, N.S.W. 
K. Mair, 10/1951. £Sai Rupp, Orch. N'S.W. (1943), 
p. 101] 

(hi) Dcvdrobium dulhxitim F. M. Bail. Ml. Nullum, near 
Munv ilium bah, N.S.W. J. Leaver, 9/1950; Ranges near 
Wauchopc, N.S.W., Osborne, 1951. First records for 
this State. 

(ti) Phretitia robusta Rogers. Babinda, N. Queensland. Wilkie 
and Loader 8/1952. This remarkable spede*. ib a giant 
in the genus, which consists for the most part of very 
diminutive plants. The minute flowers of P. rohusta ate 
no larger than those of its relatives, but the plant itself, 
with its large leaves arranged like, a fan. is unite attrac- 
tive. The new record is more definite than the previous 
vague one, "near Cairns" 

(oj Aoioptis Wisamana F. M. Bail, in Q. Ayr. J. 2: 160 
(I89<S), Bailey described this as a New Guinea plant. 
In 1946 W. W. Mason Junr. sent down a plant, without 
flowers, which appenred to be a species of Atviop.ris, a 
genus hitherto unknown in Australia, flowering speci- 
mens followed later in the year, and the plant proved to 
be A. mlsoniana, which Bailey had described irotn the 
Gira River in New Guinea, and which occurs also in 
the Solomon Islands. In September 1952, Mr. A. Pearson 
collected this species on the Daintrce River. 

120 H. M R. Rurr, Note* „« 4Wtf?.» Orchid* [ v £; »£• 

(p) RhmSrhiza dtviti flora (F. Mnell.) Rupn. 1 5'urr or hilns 
divmflorHs F Muell. | Atherlon tableland, N. Queens- 
land, between Ravenshoe and Millaii Millaa, Mrs, Eunice 
Kirkwood. Previously this remarkable orchid had not 
been seen farther north than the vicinity of Mary- 
borough (Q.).. 

(q) SarroihilHS karlmanmi F. Muell. Upper Macleay Rrvcr, 
N.S.W., J. Leaver 1952. Not known previously S. of 
the Richmond R. 

(r) Stinocltihts spalhulatus Rogers. Sugarloaf Range, S.W. of 
Newcastle, N.S.W.. F, Todd 9/1951 Not previously 
known south of the foothills of Barrington Tops, N.S.W. 

(s) Clulosclnsta phythrhwi (F. Muell.) Schltr. Yarrabah, N 
Queensland, Mrs- P. K. Mcssmer 8/1 £52. Most southerly 

(t) Mataxis .vovlhorliiln (Schltr.) n comb, \M- tOnJida f J. 
Sm. ; Microxtylis xanllwchila Schltr.). Bellenden Ker 
Range, N. Queensland, J. Wilkie, 1951. First record of 
this plant for Australia; previously known only in New 


About 30 members and friends attended the Club's excursion to ihe 
above reciuii on 1st November, Good weather favoured the outing and an 
enjoyable day was experienced The Berwick district vvitli its hilly land- 
scapes shown under their mantle of colourful Spring, presented a general 
spectacle of vivid green with fields marked out by hedges of deeper hue. 
Interspersed weft trees and shrubs of yellow and other shade*, avid the 
various views were likened by a lady from the homeland as resembling 
certain localities In England seen under similar seasonal conditions. 

About 45 species of birds were met with but a very wet season seems 
to have contributed to the absence of several migrmoiy species which arc 
usually found m the locality Al this time of ibe year In particular we 
missed the White-winged Triller, the White-browed Woodswallow and 
the Rufous Songlark 

Wild flowers were plentiful and in some places made a good display 
The flowering swamp tea-tree (.I.rploslfcrmiim tmiigcnun) was very showy 
along the margins of Ihe Curdiiiia Creek, The flood waters of this &trcam 
prevented tis front visiting the territory of the Helmeteil Honeyeater, 
and in consequence we did not see a single specimen of this lovely bird. 

In the late afternoon we paid a vhii to a renowned "orchid plot" where 
thousands of the beautiful Purple Diuris {£>. fatutMa) were found to he 
in fall bloom — .some heads having as many as five blooms on the one stalk. 
Members felt that they were amply resvarded for the lime and effort spent 
m making this uiiexpec?ted deviation 



From Mr. Melbourne Ward, of Mcdlow Rath, N.S.W. comes a Tcqncst 
lo readers for specimens of spiders, particularly of the Funnel Web group, 
Mvi/tihiiH'rphar. In return an offer >s made of collections of Blue Mountains 
insects, reptiles and spiders, or of identification work on vpiders. 

J Twr r ] r " ftA+fy&t. -4 Trap (t>r Beta 121 


By Tahlton Raymknt, F.R.Z.S 

One of the many surprising methods used by spiders to capture their prey 
is that, of a gTeenish spider known as Diaca rosea. It is a smallish species, 
with a more or less spherical body, ;wd rather long legs weil adapted for 
making- a sudden rush forward. In spue ol the specific name, whirli 
mean* of a rosy colour, these arachnids actually showed more green 
than red. 

At Cranhournc, Victoria, on 23rd October, 1952, one of our Club mem- 
bers, Herbert P Dickens, observed the behaviour of several of these 
spiders ou the white flowers ol the Shasta Daisy, The habits of several 
specimens were cornered, and il was found that all conformed to a 
common pattern. 

On several other flowers in the vicinity, were very much smaller spiders. 
ivhich appeared to be of the fame species These diminutive forms were 
not critically examined, bul u was suspecicd that 1hey were the males 
lor it is a rule among the arachnids for the males to be much smaller 
than the iemales. 

It is very doubtful whether any other spider obtains her prey with less 
effort, and so little danger. 

ITie female spider pulls down and in towards the centre of the flower 
lour petals, one after another, and fastens them in position with strands 
of. silk to form a kind of camouflaged hood. She then retires beneath this 
floral dome, and quite hidden from the world awaits patiently the arrival 
ol her victim. 

She does not, however, have to lie in wail very long, for in a few 
minutes an industrious honey-bee will assuredly alight on the daisy to 
collect the harvest of pollen and honej from the golden treasury of the 

Utterly unaware of her proximity to violent death, the unsuspecting 
bee plunges her head into the florets. The spider suddenly darts out from 
her camouflaged shelter and seizes the bee with her needle-like poison-fangs. 
There is no dramatic death-struggle, for the honey-gatherer is evidently 
m$tantly immobilized by the poison; The bee is taken utterly by surprise; 
1he spider leisurely loops a few strands of silk about the corpse to anchor 
it lo the flower, and there it remains until the spider's appetite tells her 
it 'is lime to enjoy the roea) so easily obtained, 


Plants which occur naturally in very limited! areas are not usually hardy 
enough to do well in new areas where the climatic conditions arc ncccssarilr 
different An example of this is the Rosy Bush-pea (Pullcwica suhralfina) 
which is found only un the summits of Mount Rosea and Mount William in 
the Ciampians, and which lias proved difficult to grow under garden 

Cootamundra Wattle C^rncia baileyanu) provides an CxeeptiOil to this 
rule. Although this plant occurs naturally only around Cootamundra and 
Wagga in New South Wales, not only has it responded readily to cultiva- 
tion in Victoria, but it is spreading Freely from garden specimens into 
our bushlarul. A very welcome introduction it is. loo, because of its 
beautiful display during the winter months when mosl acacias have yet 10 
come into bloom, 

— A.EB. 

122 SVhal. Where and When Vv^m. 


General Excursion;,: 

Saturday, January 17— Walk from Olmda to Kalhst3. Subject. Botany. 
Leaders: Botany Group Take 9.18 am. Upper Fern Tree Cully tram. 
then bus to Olimla Bring one meal 

Saturday, January 31 — 200 mile parlor coach excursion to Loch River and 
Noojee, via Warbiirton, Mop, McVeigh'* Road; return to Melbourne 
through Warragul. Coach leave* Batman Avenue 8 am., ieturrm»> 
approximately 8 p.m. Bring two meals. Bookings, 24/-, with Mr. K. 
Atkins, Botanic Gardens, South Yarra, S.E.I. 

Saturday, February 7 — Metropolitan Golf Links. Oakleigh. Subject. 
World-famed Scarlet Flowering Gum. Take 1 .35 p.m. Odklcigh tranl 
from Minders Street, then bus to Golf Links: party nicets there at 
2.30 p,m 

Preliminary Notice: 

Saturday, March 7 — 'Evening parlor coach excursion to Healcsvilh* Sanc- 
tuary. Coach leaves Batman Avenue 2.30 p.m., returns 10.30 p.m. 
Bring a torch and one meal. Bookings, 15/-, with K. Alkim, Botanic 
Gardens. South Yarra, S.E.I. 

Group Fixtures, or Royal Society's Hall 

Tuesday. February 3 — Geology Discussion Group. Sufijeet' "Holiday 


Several interesting items emerge from a copy o! "The Bee World" 
1951. just to hand. In an article "Stinglesr, Bees and their Study'' by 
Or. P. Nogucira-Nclo, ol Sao Paulo University, Brazil, S,. America, the 
author acknowledges receipt of the t'ielotian Naturnhsi (1032) and 
writes, "T. Raymcm gave a very useful account of the Stinglcss Bees 
of Australia. His comparative study of Apis and Trigona !.< the most 
important paper written on the bionomics of the Mchponins belonging Id 
the general indo-Pacific Area". Note how far the "Naturali:.l" travels, 
and the value of the articles published The Stingless Bees. Mcliponjns, 
are fine jjollinators, visting some floivers that are not sought hy the 
honey bees. Research is proceeding to us* them for the pollination of 
plants grown in greenhouses. Dr. P. Kogueira-Neto has designed two 
rational hives for them. — L Y. 


There, are at least two things of note about Anderson's Creek which 
h;«s its source about two miles north of Ringwood and flows into tin* 
Yarra River near Pound Bend. 

This stream is believed to have captured a tributary from the Danrleno;i£ 
Creek by deepening its valley, and so cutting its way back until «t met 
the tributary which then commenced to flow into Anderson's Creek 

The first reported discovery of gold in Victoria, for which a reward 
of two hundred guineas was paid to L. J. Michelle, was from Anderson's 
Creek. At the spot where the gold war- found, which was known in the 
mining days as "Golden Point", a stone memorial cairn has been erected 
hv the Warrandyte Women's Auxiliary 

Incidentally, in the early davs Warrandvte was known as Anderson's 
Creek. — A.E 8. 

Start Your Children Right 

All porents will agree that every child should be 
trained in a proper appreciation of the value of money. 
A sane money-sense is on* of the most helpful factors 
In the building of a successful career. 

For this reason children should be encouroged to 'moke 
good use of their money boxes. Steady saving will 
develop traits of character that will make for security, 
happiness, and contentment in later 1 life. 

Teach Them to Save 


"The Bank for You and Your Family" 


FLOWERS: Garden grown native flowers— Mr. J. S. Seaton, Mr. A. K. 

FUNGI: Rlackfeltow's bread (sderotium of the fungus PobPotuS 
mvlittae), weighing 4i lb. and ploughed uf> at Kmglake — Mr. J. Ros Garnet. 

ORCHIDS: Spiranthct QnMriUit Lindl; Chiloglottis lyolH Math.— Mr. 

SUKIJ.5: sfrgivimtta nodosa Sol (Victoria) and 3 species of Nautilus — 
Mr. J Gabriel; Mandarin's Fingernails (Linyulu tnmphyii) from Hayman 
Island -Mr. F. Lewis. 

DRAWINGS: Bandicoots, orchids and iuugi— Mr. R IWter, Hwn 
Hut (Mt. Buffalo)— Mr. Haas. 


Members will be seeing Dr. Ronald Melville's films of. Kew Gardens 
(England) at the Chub shortly, but there is a chalice to see the excellent 
colour traiisparencies Dr. Melville has taken here of Australian flowers 
al an evening arranged by the Wildflnwer Prpm-rvatkni Society. It will be 
held on March .J, at 5? p.m. at Church, of England Girls' Grammar School, 
Anderson Street, South V'arra. Admission 2/-. 


Geaeral Excursions: 

Saturday, February 28— Evening excursion to Astronomical Observatory. 
Leadfir I Mr. E. Lor«i Meet at National Herbarium gates at 5.45 jun- 
ior picnic tea on Oak Lawn. Farty limited to 25. 

Saturday, March 7— Evening parlcr-co^ch excursion to Healesvillc Sanc- 
tuary. Coach leaves Batman Avenue 2JQ p_m., returns 10.30 p.m Bring 
a tnrrh and one meal. Bookings, 15/-. with Mr. K. Atkins, Botanic 
Gardens, South Yarra, S.E.l. 

Group Fixtures, or Royal Society's Hall: 

Monday, February 23 — Botany Discussion Group. 
Tuesday, March 3 — Geology Discussion Group. 


The Hawlltom Standard recently made comment on a B.B.C. talk dealing 
with the now rare Trumpeter Swan of North America. This great bird 
has snow-white plumage hikI black bill and legs, and the largest are Raid 
to have a ten-foot wing span. The. eerie clarion call, something tike a 
Frraich horn in tone, is produced through a remarkably looped and con- 
torted windpipe. 

In the early days, thousands of Trumpeters were slaughtered for their 
breast skins, used to make s-wandown tjtrilts, and by 1940 only about rjOO 
were left in North America. Some died of lead poisoning, by picking up 
too many of the shot pellets left after visits by duck shooters, and now 
drastie steps are being taken to prevent complete extinction. 

The swans winter in the Western woods and nest as far north as open 
water can be found. At one such place, a remote scvcn-miJe stretch of 
water called Lonesome Lake, game wardens fed the birds each winter 
with grain brought over a 70-mile sledge trail, but recent severe winter 
mows have prevented this haulage- Fortunately, the Royal Canadian Air 
Force came to the rescue, and for the past several years a small-scale air- 
lift has been in operation each winter. Sacks of barley are parachuted from 
shout 500 feet, and the remnant of the rare birds is kept from starvation. 

124 E. D. Giix, Giant Kangaroos [ vol. 6 9, 


By Edmund D. Ghx, Palaeontologist, National Museum, 

The discovery of fossil bones in a terrace of the Merri Creek 
at Campbellfield on the northern outskirts of Melbourne shows 
that only a short time, ago (from the geological point of view) 
giant kangaroos roamed that area. While carrying out his duties 
as a surveyor, Mr. A. J. Blackburn, of the F.N.C.V. Geology 
Group, found this locality and kindly drew the attention of the 
writer to it. Later the Geology Group held an excursion to this 
vicinity, and studied the story the rocks have to tell. 

Lavas Ancient and Modern 
Outcropping in the creek floor and banks is an ancient flow 
of basalt which may belong to the Tertiary Older Basalts. Dr. A. 
B. Edwards kindly made a slide of this rock, and stated that 
while it appears to belong to that group, the evidence is not con- 
clusive. Over this rock is a bed of ferruginous sandstone 3^ feet 
thick, which in turn is capped by a flow of Newer 1 Basalt, probably 
of Pleistocene age. This succession of strata can be seen at the 
locality marked I in text-figure 1. 


Text-Figure 1 

Mem Creek near Campbellfield, north of Melbourne. 

1. Section showing two basalt Hows and intervening sandstone. 

2. Site of fossil giant kangaroo bones. 

The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol. 69 — No. 10 FEBRUARY 5, 1953 No. 830 


The general meeting of the Club was held in the National 
Herbarium on January 12, 1953 About 120 members and Wends 
attended, and the President, Dr. Margaret Chattaway, welcomed 
the visitors, many of whom were old members on holiday in 
Melbourne and who included Mr. and Mrs. Stan Colliver (Bris- 
bane) and Mr. Leslie Woolcock of Canberra. 

Two matters uf general business came before the meeting. First, 
the President announced the appointment by Council of Mr. N. 
A. Wakefield as Editor of the Victorian Natimtlist in place of 
Miss Watson who had resigned. Secondly,- Dr. Chattaway brought 
up the subjeet of the replacement nf trees in St, Kilda Road. She 
expressed the view that our F.N.C.V. should take a lead in the 
matter, and members endorsed her suggestion of writing to the 
newspapers requesting interested Societies (not individuals) to 
get in touch with the Secretary, so that a representative Committee 
could divcuss the matter with Cr. Carlyle. 

Details were given of a survey ot the rare Hel meted Honey- 
eater by kindred bird clubs, and an appeal was made tor more 
field workers. Further details will be given in the Vict' Nat, 

Before commencing his lecture, Mr. Sum Colliver gave greet- 
ings from Mr. A. II. Chishohn in Sydney, and Mr. David Fleay 
of Queensland. He said also that Mr. S. E. Richardson, known 
to many members, and whose age was over 80, had just completed 
a journey of 1,000 miles upstream from the mouth of die Amazon 

Mr. Collivcr's talk, which was illustrated by slides, tanged ovei* 
a wide variety of localities, as he spoke of geology and gcncial 
natural history in South Queensland. The President conveyed 
the thanks trf the members to Mr. Colliver, whose popularity and 
long service as Secretary are still vividly remembered. 


The destruction by ^ra^ing cattle at. Mr. Buffalo was brought to attention 
again by the comments of Mr. Atkini ort his recent visit. 

Mr. Colliver reported on Curlews nesting at a homestead close tu Bris- 
bane Over a long series at years. 

Mr, Gabriel showed specimens oi the true (Pearly) anrt so-called Nautilus 
shells. The latter is the Paper Nautilus — really an egg cradle He asked 
tor idf'jtmation from anyone finding the true, or Pearly Nautilus on Vic- 
torian beaches, 

Mr. Stan Mitchell spoke briefly of 4 recent trip to Algiers where lie had 
attended a Congress and exhibited aboriginal implements which bnrl created 
great interest Pic drew attention to some fine examples of Taunanian 
native weapons which hr had procured recently in England. 

'ih"*] *"-• ^i Giu., Giant Kangaroos 125 

The base of the younger basalt is there 271.3 feet above 
M.M.B.W. datum (determined by Mr. Blackburn ). In this sec- 
tion of its course, Merri Creek flows round the margin of the 
recent basalt flow. The basalt infills an old course, thus forcing 
the stream on to a higher level, just as the River Yarra now 
flows about sixty feet above a buried bed far below. Since the 
Newer Basalt flow consolidated, the Merri Creek has cut a shallow 
valley for itself, and on the sides of this valley are terraces of 
clayey silt not now reached even by the flood waters of the creek. 
In this terrace the fossils were discovered. 

When the writer visited this area first in 1951, a new bridge 
was being built in Mahoney's Road over the Merri Creek, and 
the contractor provided the following information concerning 
bores put down in connection with the construction. The depths 
are from the deck level of the bridge which is 281.4 feet above 








Tough grey clay 


Yellow and black clay 



Loose stone 


Loose stone 



Tough yellow clay 





Loose stone 


Yellow clay 


Yellow clay 




Clay and loose stone 

1ft. 6in. 

Tough yellow clay 

Foundation on solid 


Solid rock (basalt) 

rock (basalt) 



19ft. 4in. 

Fossil Gjant Kangaroo and Bandicoot 
The "tough grey clay" of the contractor is probably the same 
as the terrace of light-grey clayey silt with calcareous nodules to 
be seen at locality 2 (see text-figure 1). There a mineralized jaw 
of Matropas titan Owen was obtained along with a number of 
fragmentary bones. A ramus of a lower jaw of a bandicoot was 
also found, though not so mineralized. Macropus titan was prob- 
ably the commonest of the giant kangaroos that inhabited Victoria 
in the Ice Age, for this species is found in so many places and 
sometimes in considerable numbers. It has been collected from 
a similar terrace further down the Merri Creek at Coburg. 

A search in the National Museum collections shows that over 
88 years ago, in July 1864, Mr. Frank Meyer found a number 
of mineralized bones in the same or a similar clayey silt on the 
banks of the "Merry Creek. 12 miles from Melbourne past Camp- 
bellfield". It could well be that Mr. Blackburn rediscovered the 
bed found by Mr. Meyer in 1864. 

Members of the Geology Group also found a number of aborig- 
inal scrapers, but what their relationship was to the terrace could 
not be determined. 


R. X. AvciitekliOSIe, Tenacious Tree 

[Vict. Nat. 
Vol. 69. 



Adventitious rooting in eucalypts is not common, but occasional 
examples prove that it does sometimes occur. One example was 
brought before the writer's notice in north-eastern Victoria. 

The subject is a roadside Red Gum ( Eucalyptus camalduiensis) 
which attained a height of approximately 50 feet, with bole dia- 
meter of about 2 feet and a spreading head of branches. The first 
crisis in this tree's life came about twelve years ago, when it was 
blown to the ground in a storm. The head of the tree came down 
in the adjacent paddock, the strong branches holding the trunk 
well clear of the ground, and forming an arch over the roadside 
fence. As often happens, the tree did not die, and the few roots 
retaining contact with mother earth were sufficient to sustain sap 
flow. Branches contacting the ground also developed roots. 

The second crisis came some eight years later when someone 
sawed the tree through, removing about twelve feet of its trunk, 
thus completely severing all connection between the head of the 
tree and its original roots. This operation was no inconvenience, 
because time had seen the development of a strong and inde- 
pendent root system from the layered branches. 

And so the old Red Gum lives on, in apparent good health, 
with a completely different set of roots from those on which it 
spent the greater part of its life. This trunkless and seemingly 
rootless tree presents an odd sight on the west side of the Targoora- 
Laceby South road, about eight miles south of Wangaratta. 

1 v 


Eucalypttts camalduiensis, sustained entirely by adventitious roots from 
the branches, Photo taken by the writer four years after trunk was 


IV f 9 7» "^ N. A. WAKEf'my, l'ith\ui« Specks of Pvwtdtrrn 127 


By N. A. Wakki'Iklo 

following the publication of new names for many species u£ Po>iuuferrir r 
(in J'ic. Nat, 68, pp. 140-14.1; Dec. 1951), the following notes are presented 
to assist naturalxits in dealing with Victorian species. Tlse local members 
of the genus will be discussed on the basis of their enumeration ill the 
1928 F.K.C.V. Cms"* of the Plants of Piclnria, Mid JEwart'* Flora oj 
Victor*. (I WO). 

A. P. lanigera, P. ferrugiiicn, P. mcciniijolia, P. al'dulu, P. prmtijoliu, 
P. elatkaphyiia and P. phxiicifalia. need uot be amended; and P. wlnlixti 
was fully diall with in Vk. Nat. 58: 176 (March 1942). 

B. P. ettiptha is a specie* endemic in Tasmania : but its nam? lias been 
a "dumping ground 7 ' for several species, the Victorian members of which 
may be distinguished by this key : 

Petals auriculate, style hardly cleft: 
Calyx-tube and under-aurfaccs of leaves boring simple 

hairs , , .*... . . , . . . . . . . P. .ticberiaws 

Calyx-tube and under-surfaces uf leaves devoid of simple 

hairs .... . - P. mufti fnn 

Petals not auritulate, style deeply deft; 
Leaves tapered at each end, quite glabrous above, the 

margin* definitely recurved . . . . P. discvlcf 

Leaves usually blunt at each end, upper surface minutely 

stellate — pubescent Along the mid-vein, the margins 

hardly recurved .. .. P. pilifent 

C. The "Avon Pomaderris" was originally collected with mature ffitii, 
and was erroneously identified with the New South Wales P. Indtfolw. 
because- of similarity of leaf. Another collection, in hud only, from (ienca 
River, was incorrectly designated as P. fihyluifolio (v'ar. (ati)oHo). A 
third loan, allied to the Avon plant, has been known as P li'difntia var 
<M$«t*rt/<9&>. (See Flora Australiensis 1 : 419 ) The Victorian ^peci'mens 
concerned are now identified as follows: 

Flowers in leafy thyrsoid panicles, the ovaries prominent and 
glabrous; capsules glabrous aiid quite exserted: 
Upper -surfaces of leaves hearing stellate hairs . . /'. anuuslifalia 
Upper-surfaces of leaves glabroui of beating simple 

hairs ... .. -• i, .- .. - . P. hfitianthcMiifolia 

(The true P. fedifvliu i« dealt with below, in section (i. ) 

D. P. bclutiiia has also provided a "damping ground" for a number of 
spe<ies, the three Victorian ones being rcc.oguijed by this key : 

Flowers fessile or almost so, in clusters with persistent bracts : 
L^ves invested hencatb with a stellate scuri . . P. bctidina 

Leaves invested beneath with apparently simple woolly 
hairi : 
Upper bearing; a velvety mat of miittlte 

hairs ... .. ., .. P. .sitbropitata 

Upper leaf-snr faces hispid with large stiff erect haire,_ 

P. criocet>hala 

£. Reference to" the type specimen of Hooker's P. racemn-m has proved 
it to be the Tasmanian lorm of what has been known in Victoria as 
P. mh-npamlu ; so the former name must replace the latter. The species 
which has been wrongly known, in Victoria, as P. ra\c?mosa is actually 
Mueller's P. ornria. 

128 N. A, Wakkjield, Victorian Specks of Poinodfiris [ Sj ^jjj 4 

F. Specimens, from drier parts nf north-eastern and eastern Victoria, 
with woolly vesliturc, leaves stellate-pubescent on their upper surfaces, 
and large golden flowers in pyramidal panicles, represent a species now 
known as P. aurca. 

G. As well as the 20 already mentioned, there are a further 9 species 
which have been added to the known flora of Victoria by their discovery 
in East Gippsland during the past fifteen years. Each of these, however, 
had Ueen previously collected in New South Wales. They may be identified 
by these features : 

Similar to P Ipitigiflf; but with upper surfaces of leaves 
shining and almost glabrous, and with a coarser ves- 

titufe ,. l. ,. .. .. .. .. .. P. offin'ts 

Upper branches thin and bearing long fine spreading hairs;. 
under-suTfaccs of haves bearing dense simple ventiture; 
flowers tiny, pale, apetalous, in large loose panicles, 

P. Hgitslri>i<i 
Leaves small, oblanceolate, upper surfaces hispid with 
simple hairs, undcr-surfaccs invested with simple 
pubescence and some stellate hairs on ribs and petioles; 
flowers apetalous, in small loose panicles , . . . P. pmicijlora 
Leaves small, margins usually strongly recurved, tipper 
surfaces velvety with minute dense hairs ; petals 

none , P. pallida 

Leaves broad, blunt, strongly pennate-costate beneath; 

flowers pale, apetalous, in dense pyramidal panicles: 

Upper leaf-surfaces glabrous, under-surfaces invested 

with short dense simple hairs r . ..P. iviluto 

Upper leaf-surfaces pubescent with stellate (or rarely 
simple) hairs ; under-sur faces stellate-tomentose . . 

P. cotovcuslcr 

Leaves normally small, their upper surfaces glabrous, invested 

beneath with simple forwarri-npprrssed vestiture, the 

venation peniiatc or not apparent; flowers villose, in 

small loose clusters.; 

Petals absent; leaves rather blunt, with shining ferruginous 

vcsliture beneath .. P, scrkca 

Petals present ; 
Leaves tiny, narrow, flat, with no lateral veins -. P lr,ii]nlia 
Leaves medium-sized with pennate venation, or else small 

broad and quite convex above -, . -. .. P. audrovtfdtfoha 
The list of species of Pinuadrrris on page t'Z of the F.N.C.V. Census of 
the Plants of Victoria, should he amended as follows : 

For P, frrruqinrn , read S., E. 

Add: P. vehiliim J If Willis .'. NlR, E. 

Delete: P. ettifiikn 

Add: P. sifhcriowt, N. A. Wakefield 
P, miUtifloro (DC) Fa«l . 

P. discolor (Vent.) Desf, 

P. I'ilifcrn N. A. Wakefield .. . 
Delete : P. kdifolia, and replace by 

P. hclianthcinijolia (Rcrsj.) N. 


Add: P. intijitsiifnliii K, A. Wakefield- • 
P. eriocephala H. A- Wakefield - . 
P. subcapttata K. A. Wakefield - 
Delete: P. raccmoso and replace by 

P. ororia F. Muell. ex. Reiss. . . 

S.. E. 
S.. E. 

Si. E. 

K.E.. E. 
IMF, E. 

N.E.,. E. 
N.E.. E. 

All but 


,< js?» ary ] M M- Chattaw^y, Thote London Siarlmas J» 

Delete: P. subrependa r and replace by 

P racentosa Hook N.W., S.W., S. <f.) 

A*l; P. ourea N. A, Wake/ield .. .. N.B., E. 

P affimi N A. Wakefield . . . E. 

P. !iaut!rina Sieb. eN DC E. 

P. paueiftara N. A Wakefield .. .. E. 

J*! pallida N. A. Wakefield . . E. Ingeegoodbee 

P. tostato N. A. Wakefield E. 

P. cotantastcr N. A Wakefield E. Upper Genoa River 

P. sericea w. A. Wakefield .. ,i .. R. Upper Genoa River 

P. leditolia A. Cttnn, .. , F. lit. Kaye 

P. andromcdijnlia A. Cuun E. 

In a later issue of the Victorian NoluroJisI, due credit will be given to 

these whose collections corutitutex) these, and other, new records for 



Melbourne City councillors may Jrave their difficulties with the pigeon 
nests, but. as yet starlings have not caused the acute problems that they da 
in London. A paragraph in a recent issw of Country JJ}e (Augvst 17, 
1951) tells of the failure of the Westminster City Council to devise a 
practical defence against the starlings that roost in thousands on the build- 
ings in Square. These birds are. commutors in reverse; they 
leave the city at dawn for feeding grounds in the surrounding country, 
returning at dusk to their roosts, ft is a memorable sight to see the sky 
darkened by a flight of returning starling's as they fly in over the outer 

Most of the remedies suggested, such as electric shocks from low tension 
wires, or sprays, are either too epensive or merely serve to drive the flock 
from one building to another. The Constitutional tried letting off fireworks, 
but these, so far from frightening the birds from its buildings, attracted 
those from neighbouring ones, as a good fireworks display on Guy Fawkcs 
night will bring round a crowd of children from adjacent streets. 

In summer the starlings — like other Londoners— pine for a change of 
scene, and they roost during July, to a number of about 100,000, on Duck 
Island in Si. James Park. The City Council decided to eliminate this 
gathering, hut bow? When pressure hoses were iried the hirds merely 
moved to the Victoria Memorial outside Buckingham Palace, where they 
•were even less welcome. 

In Melbourne the starling menace has not yet reached these proportions, 
but we had better watch out. Those who use Ihc Hanna Street tram 
route for their daily journey to the city may have noticed, especially in 
winter when dusk coincides with the after- work exodus, that here, too, a 
peak hour rush may be seen, but in the reverse direction. Flocks of 
lnynahs and starlings are also making their way homewards to a large 
<orrugated iron shed half-way along the street. Here they may be seen, 
perching on the trees and alighting on the roof, chattering and gossipping 
before they make their way under the louvres of the roof to shelter for 
the night. 


Our country member. Mr. E. T. Muir, of, 45 Normanby Street, Dimboola, 
would like to hear from anyone who is willing to send him seeds of 
native plants, particularly members of the Lily family. These are needed for 
an American naturalist, and seeds of American plants may be available 
in exchange. 


), H. Wu-liSj Pto'it Genera at Crcsxnck 

L Vo 

Vol. CT. 


(Isoilcs, Pthtforia and Dichan'.liinm) 

By J, H. Wlt.LlS, National Herbarium, Vic. 

Creswick has a rich diversified flora, ami within a radius of about let? 
miles there art; at leasl 414 indigenous vascular plants, more ihan 60 
bryophytes and 150-200 species of the higher fungi. Several important 
papers in the Victorian Nohtrulist concern this flora [see T. S. Hart. 
''Notes on the Distribution of the Eucalypti about Creswick and Clune;" — 
Vol. 34, Oct. and Nov. 1917; also R W. Bond. "Ferns in the Creswick: 
District"— Vol. 50, Jan. 1934, and Vol. 59. Dec. 1042]. 

During January, Mr. R. V. Smith and 1 re-trod parts of the country 
which had so fascinated us as students at the School of Forestry there, 
and we were rewarded by some excellent discoveries including ten plant* 
not hitherto recorded for the district. Basalt plains north-west of the 
township provided a crescendo of botanical excitements (in spite of heat, 
Sics and troublesome grass-seeds). We found rare Scirfnis coii-grtait (Nees) 
S. T. Blake, of which the sole Victorian representation was a scrap 
collected by F. M. Reader in "Lowan Shire", Nov. 1892. Nearby, on drying 
Intid grew Isoftes drmrunofldii A. Br. (Quillwort) and Piluloria now 
hvllatuiia A. Br. (Pillwort), while the rocky gorge of Creswick Creek 
at Tourelto yielded Dichanthiiun scrkaim (R. Br.) Camus (Blue Grass)— 
all three genera new to central Victoria. 

The accompanying sketch will show roughly where these species have 
b«n collected in the State : Dichonthwh alone occurs at Suggan Buggftii 
and along the Dcddick River (upper Snowy region) ; PiMaria is present 
liom around Lake Wiriton to Graytown (Goulburn Valley) ; Dkhanlhitmi 
sod Pilularia hoth occur on the Keilor basaltic plains (between Broad- 
rneadows and Little River ; Iso'ctcs in cn-exteusive with FtiwloriQ. be- 
tween Hawkesdale and Tyrendarra in the south- west, and also in the 
Wi-stern Wimmcra (between Muiyip and Scrvicetou — on sandy as well a* 
heavier "crab-hole" country). 

\ftCTORifiN Z>/STR/J3(JTtoN 

I Isoetes iforWH/r £ fj ■% J 

I P/tv/<rr/cr rio\rae-/ioffatn/ice [P • • • • >J 


^T^J w L - Wit.i.i-iM 5j An Albhiu OttM fit 

Tliei* is one "Wimmera" specimen of DuhaHthuwi in Mel- 
bourne Hcrbai ium, !)trt the location is too vague tor indicating any field 
proximity to the: two ptrridnphyics. Crcswick becomes an important IKW 
link between eau anil west in the range of these three genera, and is the 
■only ilefiuite locality in which they are at present known to overlap. 
The olher Victorian nuillwon, fsooirs hnmilwr F. Muell. (if really distinct) 
occupies pools on ijrsnitie ri.jcks in the extent portion Qf the Sfate — Mt, 
Pilot near Chilteni. Upper Murrav, Little Uiver falls al Wulgulmorang 
and Genoa gorge. [See Viet. Nat.' 62 125 (Nov. IW5)|. 


By W. I.. Williams 

In iht I'utoTtan Naturalist of November 1944, J gave an account of 
albinism in specimens f had collected of a number of native flowers n) 
various genera On Noventbet 16, 1952, I added to my list an albino form 
■of Cnlochiiux rnhrrtsonii, collected M the eastern end of the Macedon 
Range, About a dozen normal si>«eimens were in Hover, their gorgeous 
-purple beards doing a little to brighten a tugped hillside clothed with 
Silver-leaf Stringybark and Small Grass -tree. 

The spike of the ..II. in.: carried four flowers, one dead and iruntinjsr, a 
second fully open but badly chewed and torn, and two still in bud. One 
■of the buds has opened, the sperinren \>&nsr in water, and it well confirms 
-the impression created by the damaged bloom. The beard is a gbstening 
white, though the luirs near the tip are greenish at their base* The gland* 
•on the column wings arc also silvery white, except that tlicy carry a faint 
spot of mauve at the tij». The other segment* of the flower are of a clear 
and ratheT pare jrreen. 

Shade had nothing to do with the. phenomenon; the orchid was growing 
sn full Sunlight. 


The comment in the frifl/, A'jr. of February 1952 (68: 163) on the 
rarity of the ualivc poppy, brought a fetter from our country member. Mr 
W Hunter, listing several occuneuces of the species in East Gippslaud; 
and National Herbarium records show it to occsir also in a few places in 
1he Mallee and Wimmera, as well as at Portland and Daylesford, apparently 
•usually tn dry conditions.— N.A.W, 

Mitchell gorge mosses 

While on the excursion reported by Mr. Ken Atkins Etl the Jamiaiy 
issue of the I'ic/nrian NotuMhst, Mr. B. Dakin collected 21 species of 
•masses. Undoubtedly the mrrnt interesting was an example of f'apHlaria 
tracva in fruit- -a rare occurrence for any member of tins genus in Vic- 
toria. Pnpilluriit species arc string-like mosses which frequently hang as 
festoons on the branches of jungle trees, but P. cmecu was discovered 
in the Fcrnlrec Gully National Park ( Danricnrmg Ranges-) during December 
by IT. T. Clifford — the most westeily record known. Another attractive 
and rather uncommon tree moss rnllccted by Mr Dakin wan Ncckern 
aurescenx (flattened fern-like branches and shining leaves that are each 
regularly and concentrically undulate) | again. Mr, Clifford found the 
same species in the Dandrnougs (Clematis Gully) for the first time last 
July. The Mitchell Gorge suite included good fruiting material of Cryt>hira 
jiilalalo, circlieri and PtychomilrtHw itnlli'iiii — ah unfamiliar 
mosses 111 western Victoria. 

— J. It W. 

132 M titi Cmattawav, Paftrt Worth RcaJino [ v j t £~ 


Volume i numW 32 of The Advancement of Science, of which a copy 
is now awtiUhle in the F.N.CV. library, contains two articles- on natural 
history which may be r>f interest to our members. The first, hy Professor 
J, R Matthews 1 is a paper which was read before the sections d Zoology 
ami Botany at the Edinburgh meeting oi the feritsh Association for the 
Advancement af Science. It deals with botanical aspects <A nature con- 
servation in Scotland, and contains rnauy suggestions at)d reminders for 
all countries such as ours, in which the destruction of our natural flora 
ha* moved even more rapidly than «it Scot land, hoi in which, as in Scotland, 
remoteness of the mow mountainous parts has made if possible far some 
io be saved, even at litis late hour. 

The author deals with two aspect?, of the subject. Some syc:i«S are 
rare, few hi number and growing in restricted local ites. 01 Iters it re rela- 
tively common snd at present are growing in abundance, but may yet he 
in as much danger of extermination as the rare ones, because the economic 
needs of the country are causing changes which will. 01 necessity, destroy 
their habitat. Among these latter arc all bog and swamp plants, which 
will disappear as more land is draiued for pasture and agriculture, and 
trie flora of native deciduous woodland, of which, through centuiics Ixz" 
exploitation so liiile remains, Professor Matthews stales that it is esti- 
mated that before man appeared in. Scotland 50 pec cent, ni the laild 
surface was under forest; at present the figure is about 5 per cent. 

The widening of roads and replacement of hedges by fences has caused 
a marked decrease in the wild rwz flora ; die felling of native pine foteste 
has caused the disappearance of more than seven species peculiar to that 
habitat. Tire extensive cutting of peat, and its present commercial cxploiti- 
tion to replace coal as a household fuel is. at present, an economic nece*-, 
stly, bat it could have disastrous results 011 the adjacent countrywide, for 
prat, which is only formed under conditions 01 very Jugli rainfall, is one 
of the tolls th»it is most retentive of moisture, and its loss from a moun- 
tainous district might well be followed by flooding and erosion. 

There is much matter in this article for thought; exploitation ai 
natural reserves has the same results in ercry country, and at the present 
lime many countries arc trying to repair the damage done by unrestricted 
exploitation of past generations. 

In Scotland there has recently been set up the Mature Conservancy oi 
which Professor Matthews says, "Its functions are summed up in it* char- 
ter: 'To provide scientific advice on the conservation 3»>d control Of the 
natural Mora and fauna of Great Britain ; to establish, maintain and manage 
natural reserves in Great Britain, including the maiutcnancc of physical 
r&rUres of scientific interest; and (o organise and develop the research and 
scientific services related thereto'." 

All Lovers oi nature will approve this course and hope that fremi such 
Miiall Liagiii]iiti6> may grow larger schemes that u-ill be world->wide hi 
their application. 

The other paper was rear! by Dr. F. Fnuer Darling to lite section of 
Zoology and lite sub-section of Forestry at the. same meeting.! - It deals with 
the relation of mammals to forest growth. 

Dr. Darling groups forest animals in five groups, the predatores and 
msectivores, which favour forest growth, and the jcraicrs. browsers and 
rodents, winch depress it- Of the wild predatmy animals that roamed 
British forests in Saxon times only about four exist ill atly ntuitber to-day, 
and they are insufficient to deal with the menace ot the rodents Among 
ttte gracing animals, the ones that do most damage to-day are deer, which 
vt re kept under control only by wolves, foxes and humans. Wolves are 

lEfcJ T.ondw Jiiftt Vi&ytt 13.1 

extuict in Scotland, foxes cannot deal with adult deer, god humans arc 
at present nat keeping them In check sufficiently to ptrsei ve young iorvst 
growth trow Ha mage. 

Tn rhi* article the facts. eVi not apply directly to Australia nor can the 
conclusion] drawn from them be so applied, hut the |>apcr is of grest 
interest none die less, and thought-Ciruvoking to anyone genuinely inter- 
ested in the problem!! of maintaining and improving woodlands, whether 
of natural forest or of planted exotic species. — M.Vf.C 

♦J3ct&n1CJl Aspects if ffature Conarrvntfcro In Seollatid. The Advan«ntnc»t nt 

Science t; M. 3*}-J7S; J. tC Mailbews. 14B2. 
tMeinnifil% anr) rnreniT. Tho A'lvnneemMir At fli'irnco A- 33: 4ia-<t1Tr IT. 

Frajet rsariing. 15152, 


All over London there are vigilant bird-watchers, scanning tW- street*, 
parks and building* for any birds thai may have- strayed in from 1tm i.tiuntry. 
In a R R.C talk railed ''I Spy Strangers," R S. K Filler, a well-known 
British ornithologist, mentioned home of cite avian visitors that have come 
to the capital recently. The black red-start, once so rare, U now almost a 
commonplace in the City of London, where it nests annually in various 
localities. But it is the patsutg visitors 1hat briug the must excitement to 
Loudon's watchers. The peregrine falcon that chased a kestrel over the 
Central Hall at Westminster was seen by a distinguished civil tervant who 
1.5 a great bird lover, while the peregrine that occasionally visits St. Paul's 
Cathedral to dine at leisure is as warmly welcomed by the watchers ai it is 
disliked by The pigeons that form its meals. Another watcher, at present 
head of one of the London colleges, happened tn *ec a migration of lung- 
tailed tits proceeding thrtMigh the City. He heard them calling in Ibe trees 
near St. Paul's, and, in spite of the tialTic noise, was able to pick our theii 
CUrioUd littL splutter. He followed them by foot and hy bus. *.nd came up 
With them again by a church in Holbnrn. In the <.amc afternoon, otlier 
people heard them in Lincoln's Inn and io Bloomsbury. 

This and mucn other information about birds in London »s contained in 
VKffi remarkable reports which appear each year. One is a report, on bird 
sanctuaries in the royal parks and is issued by the Ministry of Warks ; the 
other, the London Bird Rc-pcrt, is the work of the London Natural History 
Society. To the outsider it may <cetn »t range that there should be two 
yearly reports derated to bird life in the vast and sprawling City of Greater 
Londnn, hut there is plenty of it to be seen by those who go about with 
their eyes opeu. To a migratnig oird London, with its thirty miles or more- 
of bricks and mortar, takes as much crossing' as the Straits of Dover, and it 
is not surpriiing that some tired flyrrs COUK down in the middle. In IW9 
a most utiLomnicm bird waj seen there , this was a Great Grey Shrike, which 
chose to take a rest in a taxidermist':; yard in Camdeu Town. "I'm glad 
to he able to tell you, 1 ' ?aid Fitter, "iliat despite the tViolbnrdiness ot thin 
bird, it created a record by being the first (treat Grey Shrike rver known 
to have left a bird-stuffcr's premises alive." 

(From The tfawlhom Statulard. Wed., July 18. 195 1.) 


One good law instigated by the Nazis and approved by all four oucups- 
linnal poweri, in 1945, wss ibe "protection ttf nature". The law is slill in 
force in Western Germany, but is ignored in Eastern Germany. It is 
f<jrhid'.lcn to catch animals by trap or snare, or anything that, will hurt the 
animal; they may be shot dead, at brought back alive and unharmed. It 
also is forbidden to catch singing bird?. The man keeping the law in order 
3s <>0-year-old Hetr Herold. a slender, wlute-haired. dusty old gentleman 
who become* a hall of fire ii he hears the Allies have been shooting his 
duck* out of season.— leeprint from Progress Press, 2Z/6/S0. 

134 Vt M. CnATTAW^v, Xtsl R&r?s jar Mrdl L v'tl. «o' 


"The F-nci.urafcemont r>i Birds in Commercial Fiantalions by Nest Boxes 
and Oilier Means,'' by J. M. D. Mackensic. 

A paper on this subject was presented to the Edinburgh (19fil) tneeting 
til -the BrKish Aiiociation ior ilic Advancement of Science and has how been 
iiri»»ted in the Journal of the Royal Scottish Forestry Society JSwWidi 
/•Vmv.vy 6: 10-17 (1952)*]. Interesting records hre given oi attempts to 
encourage British birds tu nest again in ftonn whicVi they Have been 
driven, rhioiurh loss of iheij norma' nesting places as monospecific, evcrt- 
aged stands have replaced the natural forests of mixed species 

"Bird management" has now been studied tor many years by foresters. 
as well as by ornithologist*, and since the end of the last century the bene- 
ficial versus the harmful haoils ol certain igdStt has been a controversial 
subject In tfie main the present view is that birds can he ofTedtvc am- 
irnllers of iur.cet pest*. 2nd there 13 no proof that, rtiey act as a hindraoCe. 

in IW2 the British Forestry G>mtiii6MOn initiated a nest box experiment 
in the Fore « t of Dean, and later oilier areas were added; in RMS the experi- 
ments were put into the hand; of the Edward firey Institute. In this 
paper the author gives interesting details of the making and placing of 
boxes. He finds that p1a3lic boxej are favoured, with metal as a srennrl 
and wooden boxes as a rather |>opr third choice. He fiods alio that both 
he (for convenience) and the birds liked set at 5-6 ft. from the 
ground, lmt that bovs and hikers do too, and that 10-15 ft. 15 usually a 
safer height. Altft&Oftri it means rxtia time and trouble. Inter fercilee with 
the boxes is serious in some places for "the persevering boy will cheerfully 
'■mash ,i box or take it home. They do not seem to realize that There is 
anyllniirf wrung with this, for ^onie obscure reason connected v/rtfi its 
being in a wood." Is it cheering; or depressing io> find that human nature 
is just the same at home as in Australia' 

His bonces, with I-J-inch entrances, were used ior nesting by ku or a 
dozen different species — lits. flycatchers, nuthatches, robins, wrens and 
tree-creepers— and in winter they were used as roosts Further- improvement 
of the bird population niay be made by planting a few "preferred" trees 
for ordinary open nests and by the occasional pruning of selected trees to 
leave cups and forks. It is the removal of old and crooked trees by 
thinning plantations that leaves them so bare of nesting sites 

Otic uT his conclusions 15 that, whereas before boxes are put uy the 
number of nc;t sites undoubtedly limit the density of the bird population, 
with increasing usr of nesting boxes food supplies and territory become 
the limiting factors. 

1 fancy naturalists have noticed the cJisnRes. in bird population that 
have occurred in Australia as a Tesult of settlement, the clearing of virgin 
forest and the tendency to substitute exotics for native tree*. ' ft is 
encouraging to fi.-nj similar changes in bird population have been recog- 
nized in other countries, and lliat attempts have been made to regain a 
balanced population. Is if too much to hope thai ornithologists and 
foresters in Australia may some time tarry out similar investigations .and 
help to restore the appropriate nesting sites Id some of our own displaced 
birds. ? M.M.C 

•It i« hnpM thnt, a Ttjvtiv.t <sf ".hi? InUvesssnr paper wilt Vhprtly tit available J'or 
members of the F-N.C.V. 

Miss Ins. M. Watson for private reason* relinquished the niiemu* posi- 
lion of Honorary Editor in Kimmber. The Club is .gratefu) for her services 

during the previous 20 nmnlhs. am! the literary support of members 
ior her successor, Mr >»". A. Wakefield.. 

The Victorian Naturalist 

VoL 69 — No- if MARCH 5, 195 j No. 831 


Ati Extraordinary General Meeting of the Club was held at 
the Herbarium on February S, 1953, at 7.45 p.m., to discuss an 
application by tbe Frankston F.NX. for affiliation with the 
F.N.C.V The Secretary read statements of the objects of trie 
F.F.N.C., which accorded with those of the F.N.C.V It was 
proposed by Mr, I-cwis, and secouded by Mr. Chalk, that the 
application of that Club he endorsed by the F.N.C.V. This was 
carried, and the President adjourned the Extraordinary Meeting. 

The Monthly Meeting of the Club followed, with Dr. Chattaway 
in the chair, and about 1.90 members and visitors in attendance. 

The President announced the decease of an Honorary Mem- 
ber, Mr. W. F. Gates, aged 96 ; and tbe meeting stood in silence 
for one minute as a mark of respect. 

Dr. Chattaway introduced Dr R. Melville, of the Royal 
Botanic Gardens, Kew. England. Dr. Melville gave an interesting 
talk on the. history of those Gardens, from their commencement 
tn 1760; and described them as they are to-day, illustrating the 
lecture with many beautiful colour slides. Members asked 
numerous questions which were ably answered by the speaker. 
Dr. Chattaway thanked Dr. Melville on behalf of the Club. 

Quite a number nf new members were elected to the Club, 
Mr. and Mrs. M. K. O. Millett and Charles Millett became 
Joint Members and Junior Member respectively; Mrs. Pat 
Fuggetler Miss Ruth McVkar, Miss Laura Younger, Miss Betty 
Sommerville and Mr . F. R~ Coulson comprised the new Ordinary 
Members; and Mrs. Hilda Ramsay, Mr. K. C. Rogers, Mr, Leo 
Hodge and Mr. I. R. M'cCann tvere the new Country Members. 

It was announced that Council had approved the granting of 
Life Membership of the Club to Rev IX M R. Rupp, of Wil- 
Inughby, N.S,W. 

The Club was informed that tbe Natural History Medallion 
for 1952 had been awarded to Professor Cleland, of Adelaide. 

Mr. Dickins reported being preseut at the departure of the 
"Tottan" for the Antarctic. On berudf of the Club he had fare- 
welled Mr. Bcchervaise, who is in cliarge of (he. relief party for 
Heard Island. 

Miss Wigan. on behalf of the Ciuh, thanked Miss Ina Watson 
for her two years of editorship of the Victor-ion Naturalist, and 
particularly for the excellent Lyrebird issue of September 19S2. 

Dr Chattaway elosed tbe meeting a< 9.45 p.m. for the Conver- 
sazione and the examination of specimens. 

X3C What. Whcrv *mf H'fto. WtW 


Mr. Tarlton Payment remarked upon a large bee, one of the group of 
leaf-gutters, which had departed irom its natural habits to engage in the 
purloining of material from domestic bee hives for the purpose of furnishing 
its own home. 

M iss Neighbour illustrated a safe method by which housewives may 
Temove Huntsman Spiders from walls, by using a potlid and piece. of card- 
board. Miss Watson suggested using a long tumbler instead, thus facilitating 
immediate retreat if necessary. 


BOTANY : Garden grown native flowers- Mrs. Lewis, Mrs. Bennett, 
Mr, A, E. Brooks, Mr. J. SeaUm, Native plants from Mount Buffalo— Mr. 
H. Stewart. Butterfly Orchid, Stircochiiitf ptirvifiorus, which hud 35 flowers 
last season, collected in Sreith Gippsland and presented to the Bolanie 
Gardens — Mrs. O. Brewster. Starfssh Fungus, Ascroe ndjra, train Lake 
Mountain, dried under high vacuum while frozen, to preserve size, shape 
and some coloration, collected 24/1/53 at about 5,000 feet— Mr. J. R Garnet 

MARINE BIOLOGY: Upixm- jaw of Great Sawfish, a species of shark 
of tropical eastern Australia aed elsewhere, growing to 20 feet in length 
and with a saw 5 feet long — Mr. F. LewiF. Coral-dwelling Mollusc, MagilitS 
antiquHS, from Mauritius — Mr. Gabriel. 

CONCHOLOGY: Five species of Land-Shells (Stiatls) introduced into 

Victoria — Mr. Gabriel. 

GEOLOGY : Series of specimens of rocks of metarnoTphic origin, from 
251 mile-post on the Princes Highway, east of Orbost— Mr. A. A Baker. 
Rock specimens from the west shoreline of "VVsratsh Bay, South Gippsland 
— Mr A. Burslon. 

MISCELLANEOUS- Photographs of Lake Hattah Sanctuary, illus- 
trating two rruiliug Codcrnocorpvs — C.S.LR.O. Snapshots of Kew Royal 
Botanic Gardens — Miss E. RafL 


Saturday, ivlarcit 14 — F.xcmsion to Wc-mbec Gorge. Subjects: Geology 
and Botany. Leader: Mr. W. Eurston. Take 8.40 a.m. Ballarat train, 
aliyW Bacchus Marsh, return lo city 8,10 pm, Bring two meals. 

Sunday, March 15 — Excursion to King's Fails, Arthur*? Scat Take MS 
a.m. Franks-ton train (express), then bus to Dromana. Leader: Botany 
Group. Bring two meals. 

Monday. April 6 — Excursion to Senbolme (weather permitting) . Subject?: 
Sea-marsh Flora and Birds. Leader: Mr. K. W. Atkins. Take 9 3 a.m. 
Altona train, alight Scaholmc. Bring one meal. 

Saturday, April II — Planting and inspect-on day- at Maranoa Garden, 
Balwyn. Plants will be provided. Take Mont Albert tram, No. 42, in 
Collins Street, alight stop No. 54, Parring Road, walk up Parring 
Road to gates <il Park, where leader, Mr. A. J. Swaby, will meet 
paiiy at 3 pm Bring' friends and make the- garden more widely known. 

Group Fixture!, ot Rayol Society'* Hall: 

Monilav, March 23— Botany Discussion Group. 
Tuesday, Aiirjl 7 — Geology Discussion Group. 

KrNMitTjr Attun"?, Excursion; Secretary. 


By Dr. RjamCW T. Pattov 

The Rogong High Plains are situated m the north-east of 
Victoria, ar an elevation of approximately 5,500 feet, aud form 
part of the Australian Alps; but as the popular. Mtne implies, 
their surface is reasonably level, not, .mountainous. They are 
actually a plateau caused by an uplift which took place in either 
late Pliocene or early Pleistocene times. (Singleton, 1939.) 

The uplift was possibly as much as 4,000 feet and reasonably 
rapid, hence there is a striking contrast between the mature . 
topography of the High Plains and the steeply eroded country 
surrounding them. In Fig. 1 can lie seen the junction or knick 
point of the two cycles of erosion. The Plains consist of wide 
open country gently sloping towards the valleys in which streams 
meander through sphagnum beds. From the surface of the Plains 
rise a number of hills, mosjt of which arc capped with boulders. 


The elevation took place at a time when temperatures were 
still falling from the warm conditions of the Brown Coal period 
(Miocene), and to this fall was added a further decrease due to 
the uplift. Altogether, from both causes, the High Plains suffered 
a total loss of approximately 23°F., and thus a totally new environ- 
ment was created in Australia. Snow lay for most of the year, 
aud possibly all the year in sheltered areas. So heavy was the 
rainfall ibal it is doubtful if any vegetation covered the surrounding 
rapidly eroding country. Since the coldest period, rainfall has 
decreased and temperatures have increased, so that to-day vege- 
tation has gained The upper hand and erosion is held in check. 

The temperatures now, based on those of Hotham Heights and 
allowing 2° extra for the lower height of the Plains, show that, 
irnm May tn September, average monthly temperatures are less 
than 40° F. Below this temperature both plant growth and the 
mcitmg of snow are retarded, and above it both are accelerated. 
Apn'l and October have temperatures only slightly above 40°F. 
and are therefore of little assistance to plant growth. There is good 
flowering in December, but January has the maximum; and it 
is of interest to note that in September the temperature of Mel- 
bourne corresponds to that of the High Plains in January. Tem- 
peratures of the High Plains are now from about 7° to 10° F. 
wanner than they were at the coldest period 

Plant Population 
Aa the uplift of several thousand feet was rather rapid, riot all 
the plants of the original lower surface could adjust themselves 

m P- T. P/7T0N, Rfi<,MU) llixh />/tH».V [ V v„, 

Viet Ns(, 


to I he l'tgftl'5 of the alpine environment; and hence only those 
with a wide amplitude of adaptability could survive there. The 
present-day flora ts rich is species, and these may be considered 
as derived from four sources. 

First are the plants that survived the uplift, and these form a 
considerable portion of the whole. Among l1»m are Aca&ta 
sunguisarba, Craffsdta unijlora, Dantliomu sriniatmitluris, Dmsera 
peltate) Geranium p-Hosum, Leptorrttynckus sqve-moms, Polysti- 
chttm a<uleatum, Stytidium grawinijokuru and Ramntathis lappa- 
cevsj all of which are well known in lowland areas. Probably the 
Snow Gum. Eucalyptus pauci flora, belongs to this group, for it 
has a fairly wide lowland range, Apa-ri from the extreme range 
of the adaptability of the species, this group is not irnpormnt. 

Of much greater interest aie those species endemic in the 
alpine areas and derived from typical Australian genera, for they 
may be used as a measure of the rale and mode of evolution. In 
this second group are Baeckea gtmniana, Bossiaca- folioM, Ca/lix- 
temon aeheri, I .ntcopngon hookari. Proslivilhern cu-neata, Pheba* 
Hum phylicifolium and Vcfleia ttwntdna. 

The third group of species is derived from genera which have 
a wide distribution beyond Australia, but which also have repre- 
sentatives- elsewhere in this continent'. species, like those of 
the second group, arc of great interest, for they, roo. may be used 
to measure the rate of evolution. Among them are Evphrosia 
tmJnrcticii. Gpriwiunn scssilifiarum, Rammcntus gmuMnus, R. raii- 
Ianii, R. muelleri, Podnwrpus a.lpinxs and f'VnwiVa riivea. 

Fourthly there is a group whose genera are confined to alpine 
regions and whose geographical affinities are with plants- of other 
southern lands, particularly New Zealand. With Jew exceptions 
these genera are represented here by only one species which in 
some cases is found also in Mew Zealand, M this group, hosvever, 
it is of little significance that some species occur also in New 
Zealand, as if is Ihe genera that arc of importance. Amongst the 
plants toncerucd arc Aciphylla ylo-ciaHs, A. ■mnphcifot.iu, Astetia 
aipin-a, Colthn intraloba-, Oreobohis pumilio, Orcamyrrlns andnrnln, 
0- pvfoinifica and Trisctmn- sttbspuatum. 'these, genera could not 
have been in Australia prior to the uplift, for there was not an 
alpine climate, and therefore these must htu'c arrived after the 
formation of the Alps, but it i.> not at aJl clear by Avhat means. 
In his study of Tasmaniau mountain floras, Gibbs (1920) con- 
sidered that the genera, and in some cases the species, of this flora 
were derived from the high mountains of New Guinea by means 
oi high north-west winds which carried the seed oil to fvew Zea- 
land and South America. But if this were the case one would 
expect a. good representation of Australian genera, particularly 
in New Zealand Jt is possible that m the Pleistocene period a 
series of islands may have facilitated the transport of the fnmrb 


Yui. W 

March. 1953 

Pi \ii Vll 

1 Knlck I'oiui Junc- 
tion between tin- mutun 
tiipiijtrafthy of ilu- Plains 
ami tin deep valley of 
MieliiU- Creek. 


*tacp— ■-- "!P*i? 

1. Thnv ty/vt r»/ liahiUtl 
ini it;, High f'itxins 
Swamp in foreground, 
grass [ttaiu in left back- 
• I. and rock) liillin|i 

'■1^ ] lulll 


3, Grassland association : 
Grass plains. 


Vol. <M March. 1953 

Plate \ III 

4 lirasslaud msacialion; 
Tussock Grass, I'oa euct- 
filasa, which constitutes 
the grassland 

5, fphatfiittm association 
Mounded surface of the 
Sphagnum I* ds. 




6. Spktixutwi association; 
Am extreme meander, held 
in position by the Sphag- 
num beds 


Vol. <>9 

March. 1'^ 

I'l ITI l\ 

" Seicrafihyll asset latum 
at rear : Prostantkera 
ewicata and (>rit,-s Imu i- 
foliti. Sphagnum in lore 

K Srlfrnphyft association 
Oritts liiitfifi'lia espalier 

.ill nukv 

•». Brttchytome nitwits in 
tclcrophyll scrub. 


\'»1. (f) 

March. 19S.I 

l'l-ATK \ 

111. flal'ilal ../ Wim,,/, 

tltillll \cti- -■ 

:iri-mu .it liKtl .■: basin 

II. I ram .ilritl 

in cir<|iK'-likc head <>i 
flrvsun. Tin stum is 

ht'lon tin li'v<! n[ ilif 

1_' Dried-lip s print i. 

^iSes*] R Ti Patton. 2fo»o»w tff?A Httta 139 

group when the alpine climate was very much lower than it is 
to-day ; but it did not permit the reverse movement of the charac- 
teristic Australian genera such as Acacia.. Bank-tia, Casuaritia and 
Eucalyptus which evidently arrived after the original connection 
was severed. 

Hooker (1853) pointed out the fairly intimate boranieal con- 
nection between Australia and New Zealand, and this suggests a 
land connection between the two. However, the botanical relation- 
ships, belong to two widely separated periods of time — the modern 
alpine, and the older one that goes hack to the Brown Coal 
period. Represented lit both countries are the genera Coprosvi-a, 
Brimxs, H edycarya, Rapanea, Nothofagus, Olcarw, Pitlosporum 
and P.oinaderris. All these belong to the ancient period : and in 
is of interest to note that all are found in. the fem gullies. 


Although the climate may be regarded as uniform on the High 
Plains owing to the low relief, yet the rather small variations in 
the topography produce striking differences in the vegetation. 
Standing on any ckvated area, one may readily recognize three 
fairly extensive plant associations by their various shades of green. 

The most widespread is the Grassland of the more level areas 
— silvery-grey green in summer but fading to a greyish straw 
in autumn. Jii the lower land, the Sphagnum Bogs, known as 
Moss Beds, are marked out by their bronze-green due to the large 
amount of dead tissue associated with Richea gimmij Rcstio ww- 
trails, and H'ipoheno lateriflora On (.he higher ground- generally 
where boulders occur, the Scterophyll Scrub is easily picked out 
by its dark olive-green colour. Sometimes this last is dominated 
by snow gums, but as the trees are not always present, it is 
preferable to refer to this association as scrub instead of forest 

These three associations were first recognized on the Kosciusko 
Plateau by MeLuckie and Petric and described by them. Besides 
these three there are two smaller associations. 

The ALPINE GRASSLANDS, both in its species composition 
and growth forms, has a close retatiunship to the lowland grass- 
lands; but in percentage composition it is very different. In the 
High Plains the Tussock Grass, Poet, caispitosa var.. dominates 
all else; while Danthonia. fetntannulartt, very common on the 
Basalt Plains, occupies a very minor place, and D nudijiora, an 
endemic, is v<ry abundant. Other grasses present are Agropyrum 
seabrutH, A. ivluihium, Agrosfis vtftaslc-, flier ochloc redolent, 
Stipa pubescMi and TrisetMm subspica-tn-m, 

Roselies, fairly common in the lowlands, are also plentifully 
present ; The family Compositac is strongly represented by 
Brachycome decipicns, Celmisia kmgrfolia — perhaps the most 
striking plant an the alpine associations, Craspedia vniflora, Micro- 

140 R. T. Pattok. Bofjonrj lii«h Plt&H P'vll, <*!' 

Sf.ris scapigcui and Fodolepis acuminata. Other rosettes art? 
Aciphylfa- fflacialis, Cavdamitie hirsnt« r Genthwo. dknwvsis, Orev- 
myrrhis andicola, Pkmtaya lastnomco-, Ramtua<!»s fappacens and 
Viola betonu'joti'i. Other growth farms arc not prominent, fiut 
small cushions arc formed by Colobmlhux apctalus and Scletanthws 
biflorus; and CiiaphaHum collimtm grows in small mats. Very 
large mats are involuted by Kunsca w-wllen and Hcntwhoitdra 
pumih; the former very striking in flower and the latter hi fruit, 
liotli these arc woody plants and belong to genera strongly repre- 
sented by shrubs. 

The MOSS BEDS arc composed of living and dead material 
of Sphagnum /•yinbifttlium and vary in thickness from under a 
foot to at least seven feet. When well developed the beds consist 
of three layers - the upper white and living, the second white, and 
dead, and the lowest — the greatest in thickness — dark and dead 
and passing into peat. The .surface of these sphagnum bogs is 
not level but is formed of a scries of small mounds, which 
character is to lie seen in tlie High Moors of burope The general 
mass of sphagnum is not solid, and when walking across it, its 
springy character is Very noticeable.. These Moss Beds are. ex- 
tremely interesting for the sphagnum is not only a constituent 
member of this association, bur it :ilso forms the; substratum in 
which the other species grow. And if we accept the definition 
that soil is the medium from which roots draw their nutrients, 
then the sphagnum is soil / 

The development of these sphagnum Moss Weds is dense 
enough fo keep the srreams in their own channels and also to 
build vegetable dams. Both these diameters have already been 
observed by Dulhunty ( 194^3 j in the Kosciusko region. Another 
femure observable at rhe High Plains is that the streams are 
often held un a course higher ilu^n rhe lowest portion of tlie area. 
Some of them meander excessively in the sphagnum hogs and 
convey the impression of a very maturely eroded surface. 

'Hie moisture content of these beds is very high, for water is 
held both physiologically and physically. The aveiage moisture 
content, of several samples tested in the laboratory amounted to 
J2007r?, calculated on the dry weight of organic matter; hut in 
the bog itself the content is higher. 

The plain, population is 3 very varied one. In addition to 
Spf/ngnum arc the rhuncteiislic Astelia nlpvw forming dense 
colonies, Restin nmlrnHs. Hypolaenn lah'rifora. iiichm gunnii, 
(Ipncrii bmvl'iKvmisis. E. oiicrvphylto and B. petrophila. The 
presence of the woody species growing in an oiganic medium is 
reminiscent of the swamp-growth of trees which resulted in the 
brown ccol deposits The family Cyperaretur is very strongly repre- 
sented, and among those present with greatest interest attaching 
to Ctirpha nlpitio and Qreobo!u\ ptiimlio, for bolh these species 

"osf ] £ T. Patton, Bvgnng Hick Phmt 1*1 

extend to New Zealand, and the genera, both small, to South 

The SCLEROPHYLL SCRUB is of particular interest, fa- 
it occurs in a high rainfall area where no month receiver less 
than 3.38 inches of rain (Hotbam Heights; and the total for 
the year is over 70 inches; hut, as this plant- association is on 
rising rneky ground where the soil is shallow, the full benefit 
of the rain is- not received. 

There is an unmistakable similarity between the plants here 
and those of the Matlee, both anatomically and physiologically, 
and many of the genera occur in both areas — Crsvillea, Hgli- 
chry.swm, Leucopagon J Oteario, Phebaliuw, Pmtelea and Pros- 
tanthem. It is noticeable that such a large shrubby genus as 
Acacia is absent ftom the High Plains, and it is striking that 
the family Legumiuosae — so strongly developed w Victoria — has 
but few representatives on the High Plains Among the sclero- 
phyll shrubs, however, are two very showy legumes, Bossicea 
fn/iosa and Hovea langifolia. Herbaceous species are but few in 
RliS habitat, but Bmchycome mvahs makes a very attractive sight. 
On the High Plains annuals are very rare, almost absent, and 
this is of great interest as regards the sclerophyll scrub, con- 
sidering the very high percentage, of annuals associated with the 
Mallee Where grassland adjoins the sclerophyll scrub on the 
High Plains a very attractive annual, Euphrasia anlwlu-a, occurs, 
but this flowers very late in the season. 

A feature of these shrubs in exposed rocky positions is the 
readiness with which they form espalier growth on the rocks. All 
appear to have this habit, including Kiinsea nmclleri, which is a 
mat in grassland. Boccki'a guntmna. Orhes lanctfolia and Prasttm- 
thera mncata are the most spectacular of this group. 

At the .sources of the streams where the water is issuing from 
the springs or arising from the melting of the drift snow (which 
in 1947 lay well into January ) there ii. an unusual plant group 
provisionally named SHINGLE ASSOCIATION which, unlike 
the other associations on the High Plains, does not form a com- 
plete cover for the soil. It is an open community with the indi- 
viduals growing along the joints of the bedrock in gravel or 
shallow muddy areas. Even well into the flowering period the}' 
may he continually bathed with icy water, 

This association is bright with colour. Here aie found Coltha 
iniralaha with its large white flowers and the curious infolding 
Of the leaves, Cfoytonia, av,s!mfosica forming at times almost a 
mat covered with small whire flowers, Brosem ttrcturi with its 
rosette of linear leaves more glistening than arty other Sundew, 
Oreobalus fnmiUio small and very rigid, white flowered Ramin- 
cuius mUhimi daintiest of all the buttercup, Stackhousia pithinaris 
forming a small mat bright with cream-coloured flowers, and 

142 K. T. PArrox, Beg** Hit>h Plains [ V y^ JJf 

finally Viola Oetonicijolict brightest of all with arrow" -shaped leaves 
well upstanding and its flowers large and purple. 

The heads of the streams lie in more or less semi-circular basins 
wtth somewhat steep sides, cirquHike in character, and in which 
snow lies transversely below the crest. Similar observations were 
made by Browne, Dnllnmly and Maze (1944) on Kosciusko, and 
it is therefore possible that the heads of these streams Iwve been, 
caused by "snow patch erosion" and that they are really small 

Finally, the SKY-LILY ASSOCIATION covers the floors of 
dry vegetation dams or cut-off meanders. The chief feature of rhis 
community, which is only a transitory one and will ultimately be 
replaced, is that all the, species produce either runners or rhizomes 
and hence the soil is completely covered. The first (and tallest) 
invader of this new surface is Carex tjuudirhuudin.iw . Viola, siekfiri 
and Hypericum japmricum are diminutive plants with tiny flowers. 
Ilydrocotyle hirta- and JJahtrkagis micntnthn, are well appressed 
to the soil and have inconspicuous flowers. Veronit-a jmrpyllifolia^ 
not common, is readily recognized by its upstanding racemes. Seen 
at its best, with its large pate steel-blue flowers closely set. in the 
•surface of this perfect little sward, Nerpolirioii nome-stsaiandiae 
is the gem til lite High Plains. 


The present vegerational cover of the High Plains is the result 
of a Jong series oi changes, and as neither climate nor geology 
has been static, change, must be going on at the presftnt time. In 
the northern part of the State, lakes dry or drying, and rivers, 
now much contracted, both indicate a decline in climate, and on 
the High Plains more evidence is available, Former stream brads 
are now dry. lines of shingle show where streams once ran, and 
tbeie are dead or disintegrated sphagnum beds. The sequence of 
changes appears lo be that sekrophyll scrub is descending on the 
grasslands and that sphagnum is being replaced by either scmb 
or grassland. Erosion does not appear to be of any con>ct|ucncc 
and Dulhunty (1946) has expressed the opinion that in the 
Kosciusko region "conditions are the reverse of sod erosion '. 


1. Bbowme, W. It., DuLiifSTV. J A., and Maze, W. H , \Wi; GenlogJV 

Physiography and Glaciotafcy oi Kosciusko Proc. /.nm, Sire. N.SW., 
Vol SJ 

2. DxiUftfSTV, j. A.. 1946; On Gbcial Lakes in (lie Koiciwko Ttegiriu. 

J«nr. mul Fine. Roy. Svc. NSW., Vol LXXLS, 
3 Grons, L. S., 1920; Notes on Ihe Pliytogwtgiaphy Still Flora of the 
Mountain Summit Plateaux of Tasmania, .lour. 6f Ecol . Vol, VIM. 

4. IIOOKEJl. J. D., JB53; Flow tV-jvue-Zealandmc. 

5, Swoi-etqk F. A.. 1941 :• The Tertiary Geology oi Australia. i-Vm. Nev. 

Sac. Vict., Vol. l.ITT, 
.Vtrfc,- Plant names ate as in A. ). EwavtV, J'lora «i I'irturin (.1930). 

^iTtf] J*vM»WW Ravncnt, 0,j .SiwAm Foxciitme rttrdiT 143 


By T milton 

One hot afternoon lilt author was walking along .1 grassy j:ully in the 
forest of "Row-worrting"' in North Gtpp»la»id, what his attention was 
dtawn tu> the peculiar actions ol a Restless Ply-cakher, .SYiwa iuqukU'. 
on a dead shrub of tea-tree some six feex tall Its wings were working: in 
an exi-itcd, applets manner AS Hie bird more 'it Ires fluttered down front 
brandi to branch, ignoring \h<\ author's approach As the bud wa> about 
to tall to the gtound, tie stepped closer, and disenycrcd a Black Slake, 
rirnddchis par phyr wits, at the foot of the shrub. The bird was nnrible 
to rise from the. ground, although Ihe snake had not touched il. The reptile 
was killed, ami ihe bird ioon recovered Ms powers of flight- 
On another summer day, Clarice Kaynient was walking »ie^r the liome- 
stead, at Leongatha, South Gippsland. She saw a small bird resembling 
a sparrow — she did not know the species — trembling and fluttering gradually 
down to ihe ground, and guile unable to rise. A few feel away, and right 
diider the bird, was a Copperhead Snake, D*>Usomo suprtba, which slithered 
away among the tussocks ol grass, hut was followed and killed. 

Some years ago, at ""ulgatidra, an extensive pastoral property in the 
Kivei'ina, New South Wales, two people witnessed 3 demonst ration of 
"mass hypnotism". The pastoral ist, the late Mr. C A. Gibson, and his 
young son, Nigel, were sittuig on the verandah ol the homestead during 
the heat of noonday. About thirty feet distant was ihe def/d stump ol 4t 
Yellow Box tree, Etuoiyfttw mxlvxinra, some fifteen feet tall. The stump 
was hidden under .1 dense growth of ivy, in which some hundreds of Kngltsh 
sparrows came In noisy flocks each night 1o roost within its shelter. 

Suddenly, young Gibson called out, "What's happened to the sparrows? 
They're aJi tumbling to the .ground!" He ran over, aiid saw that tlie birds 
were fluttering about on a gravel drive, where 3 six-fool Brown Snake, 
Drtiuiiwia fcr/ifiv. w.»s strctciied out on thr ground aliout ten feet from 
the base of the slump. Tlie birds were extremely agitated., and made a greal 
commotion, but they appeared to be incapable of escaping, for they kept 
on fluttering down from the ivy. 

The snake, seeing Nigel approach, wriggled off lowards ihe homestead. 
Having no weapon at hand with which to attack the reptile. Nigel followed 
it closely, calling for someone to bring a gun. It slithered in behind a till 
wire framework supporting a number of sweet peas. It was dislodged 
.after a lew minutes tussling, and shot by a station hand When cut open il 
was "full of dead sparrows*', which had been swallowed whole. 

It was evident to these witnesses that the rsptile bad, in some un- 
accountable manner, succeeded Jo autactiug to il a large number of birds 
from (he shelter of the ivy. The Gibsons are personal friends of rhe 
author, and there is no reason to douht theii veracity, or the details of 
the encounter. 

These three observations demonstrate very conclusively a peculiar influ- 
•ence that dominates, the victims behaviour. 'Ihe author believes the majority 
oi readers will agree thai Ihe snakes, and no other agent, were responsible 
in Ihe three cases descrihed above. 

Nevertheless, the author has excellent evidence, that the "charm"' does 
1101 always work Tit ihe North Gippsland home, the family was at dituier 
one very hot Hav. Presently the strange hel'igcrcnt cooing of a pet pigeon 
called Hie authoi out to investigate the unusual sounds. 

To his great astonishment, he saw a Black Snake stretched out on the 
■slope of the grassy mole on which ihe bomeMrad wa-- Inilll The coek 
.pigeon, a "Belgian Homer", was calmly walking round (he reptile and 
ever ;md anon he imiragcouslv drew in closer, and rapidly struck the 
reptile wiMi 1 be- "^liOJItthr ot hit. iving. He was delivering sharp clips just 

144 N. A. V/aiu-HF-li.. Call td <f>< fivu^Vk Pvi *■*'* 

behind the snake's head, and ic made no attempt to strike Ihc bird, but 
remained quite still. The hen i>ifeCO« Stood off a Ifttlfi way, obviously an 
interested, hue in nowise frightened., spectator. A garden hoe suddenly 
ended the duel. 

On describing the fight, and praiiuig the <ourige Oi the unarmed pigeon, 
the author was reminded of (he nooeltalant behaviour of a number of 
White Leghorn hens which walked intuitively, and apparently -unafraid, 
round and round » Tiger Snake, Nofcdnx snttuhn. which one strayed into 
The harnyard of the farm. 


Despite published information to the contrary, Uiat old fallacy is siW 
rampant, that the Tawny Frogniouth i? the "IvtopoVe", and utters this 
well-known night call An cxcelletiT photograph pf the Boobook Owl — the 
true "Mopuke" — appears in the Victorian haturahsi oi December 1941 
(Sfti opp. 118). 

Dr. J. A. Leach, In his At<stial:<m Bird Tic/ok, may hove unintentionally 
supported that libel on our Frogmouth. He quoted "Mopuke" as a name 
for this bird, and the casual reader may not realue that tlie"(.e>" there- 
after indicates that this appellation is erroneous. Moreover, its call, Written 
there as "Oom. oom", may be taken as representing the Iwm notes of the 
Boobook f 

In 1946-7, the late. Mrs. Edith Coleman supplied this journal with three 
must informative and well-illustrated articles on the Krognioutii,, one of 
which dealt particularly with the call of the bird (63; 123) There we read 
that its mtnst familiar wjtc is a deep "Oon^cnni-' tillered mam times, a 
rhythmic Pidsijtg sontni, and that Mr. A. H. Mut'.ingley estimated the 
luaiibers of "oom" <M 14 to }50 -oAthou! ct'Ssation, 

Despite these published notes, it is probable that few have consciously 
heard the remarkable call oi the bird, and fewer still have realised the 
identity ot the caller. The monotonous "oom-ooin-oom . . . is uttered so 
low in volume as to be inaudible trom any appreciable distance The first 
time I recognised the Frogmoutn's call was at Combieiibar in 183ft and 
ir was necessary to lisien intently in order to "hold" the sound. 1 went 
outside and flushed the bird from a post not 50 feet from the house! 

Recently, when camped at Bentleys Plain on die Nunniontf Plateau above 
Ensay. I heard the <all again The taintnc-JS of the drumming brought 
the suggestion from my companion that the bird was -some hundreds of 
yards away, but it was surely very close to the hut. From the distance, too, 
came the intermittent 'Mopoke" of the Boobook So we heard both birds 

Once heard, the call ot the Tawny Frogmouth can never be forgotten, 
and there is no question oi con fusing it with that of the Boobook Owl. 

— N A. \\ r AKKFtKl.t>. 


At 3 special meeting oi the Bird Observers Club at Yellingbo. it was 
decided to organize a survey throughout the known range oj the Helmeicd 
Hcmeyester. Any persons interested are welcome TO lake part ; and those 
able to assist with transport or fkldvork should contact the Leader and 
Convener, Mr. E. Hanks (.'phone FL1740). Other committee members 
arc Mr. Garnet Tohnsnn, Secretary and Treasurer, Mr. H. Wilson : repre- 
senting the R.VO.U. Conservatio.i Committee; Mr F. Pinchiu and Mr. 
J. Launder. The eastern .<ide of the Dandenong Ranges is heme examined 
first, but co-operation is invited from Gippsland residents too, in connection 
with the perusal of areas further afield. One object of the Survey is to 
scleet a suitable area for TPjcrvatioii, to provide a isermanent sanctuary 
for the rare and beautiful honeyeater. 


;™] H &l. R Run', Memories •>/ VuHo'km QfTfUilfi 14S 


By the Ktv. H. M. K. Roto, Wilkmghby N.5.W. 

As I was born at Fort Fairy in 1872, 1 may claim that my memories 
go well back niio the Long Ago oi a mam's life Some ol tlient have now 
grown dim, others jk still very t.kit ; and among the latter arc those of 
the wildffowers which have had such a special attraction for me all through 
the years. I left Port Fairy before 1 was old enough to distinguish an 
orchid from a cauliflower, but a few years later piy rather became vicar 
of Koroit, and it was there that I Gist made contact willi our Australian 
bush 1 cat' remember very dislinei)} two otehids among tile tnaity wild- 
flowers which in those days graced the buslilands north trf Koroit The 
south side ol the village was, of course, monopolised hy (he glories of 
Tower Hill Like — and in the 'seventies of last century they were t'lories 
indeed; glories of primeval bush forest with its fern tree gullies and mink 
arbours and clematis bowers. Twenty-five years afterwards I visited Koroit 
and :>aw what man had done to that lovely fore.'-t; and fifty years have 
not sweetened the btttcriie«s which entered my soul as 1 contemplated 
that wicked vandalism. Bnl it i* nol of that which 1 set out to write. 
There were no orchids at the Lake ; they belonged to tlte open forests 
northward. The two that t remember so clearly were almost certainly 
C<\ladema taternmii and C. tlihttata; we children were taught hy my mother 
to call thcui Spicier Orchids- 

My next home wjs at Coleraiuc, but ju«i after my fatlurr settled down 
there 1 was sent off to Geelong Grammar School who<« headmaster, John 
Bracebridgc Wilson, was- married to my mother's sister. Isracebridge Wilrou 
had earned his FLS, by In; work on Victorian algae; Out he was a fine 
all-rounri botanist, and was quick to encourage any botatiical inclinations 
id his boys. Those of us who were so disposed, after a long Saturday 
rambling in the buslilands or down the river, would take our specimens to 
Win on Sunday for identification Our favourite liuntiiig-grounds lay to 
1hc souili and south-east of Geelong. I don't know to whai extent l ho old 
Saturday traditions arc maintained to-day; but a 44- mile vow (to Uarwon 
Heads and back) or a 40-tmIc tramp to and from Qucciisclifi-road. Bream 
Creek or Spring Creek (Torquay of to-day), were very ordinary accom- 
plishments. There were, of course, other localities besides those mentioned, 
and even the You Yane.5 were not beyond our reach, though 1 think •fit-. 
took the train to l.ara. by the time I left Geelong in 1891 1 knew between 
30 and 40 species ol orchids, Some of these, however, were not found any- 
where near Geelonjj;, hut in the Co'eraine district during holidays. A good 
deal ot in) time was sjient aj Wando Dale, the hospitable home of Ml, 
Wilii-ntn Moodie, a nephew of J G, Robertson, of Wando Vale, whose 
botanical prowess i> well known to all slndents of Bemham and Mueller's 
Flora AwtroUeitnr. There was a large family at Wando Dale, and most 
of tlicm loved ivt Id/lowers, so 1 was always ready for u week or two in 
their company Of that family only two are now left; Miss Grace Moodie 
and her brother Murray, who live at Mosinan— not so rtiry faT from me — 
and grow lovely flowers. The other day 1 came across a little "Catalogue 
oi the Wiidflowers of Wando Dale" compiled by me m 1892. It includes 
the following orchids: Thclywilra «K'rf«ro, Diiiris lonijiioUa. Acionthns 
c.istrtiis. A. reiiijorm.}: (then called Cyrtastylis). Cvrvftmtticf pniinont 
(this was undoubtedly Coryt'f* •FfoHHw), Cnhtlfino pclfT'onii, C <mt<>- 
St'cw'i, Pifrr-stylu Hvl<ni.i. P. rif/Zfly P- ptdwculota P. alotti, Dipoclimn 
fiutf latum 

In 1892 1 went up to Trinity College. MeJbourne ; and for the next few 
years my botanical activities: were divided between the outer suburbs of 
Melbourne. ColersmC. and BiininiQiig, whithei my father moved about 

|4f> )I. M. R -Run-, tdcmeriet of Victorian Orchitis [ V £, £*'' 

What change, have bei'n wrought wick then I One ni my favourite trips 
was io Samjrihgham, where within a. stone's throw of hie j'ailwuy station 
one flfUhj pick uffiBlKI ot lovely "Spider" Caladenias without being ;i 
vandal. Beaumaris, Black Rock, Cheltenham and Mardial.'oc wete ottcn 
visited, and there were orchids galore. It was at Cheltenham, J llnuk, 
that I first uillccteo! Lyt^rcMkns nigricans and Ltftveertkl firHiiftatnmi 
two of tin: most faecinftling of Poi't Phillip terrestrials. Rlackbur.t and 
Ringwood were favourite areas eastward. Once or twice 1 jrot as far as 
Fern Tree Golly, 1 was thrilled at the sight of my first epiphyte, 
tire lovely lilllc Sorcccliituj <insirti!ii y growing on Cofir&sm<i qwdfifido, 
Green jborough, fimhcr round towards the north, was appropriately noted 
far its Grrenhoods. A surprisingly interesting spot was the Merri Crcelc 
about North Cobwg. wi>ere flourished I list qiinHrt little Cromhood 
P. cmnlhta — in the variety which Mueller n.,mcd P. wttrkibficui Incident- 
ally ] may say that h wa< during my Trinity College 3 ears that I made 
the acquaintance of Baron von Mueller,; but that story has been loid by 
Mrs Margaret Willis in h*T memoir of (he Baroi% By Their Prints. 

One of. my ttcsi-roneitibered "fini/s" during those years was at Porlarling- 
ton, where I had the good luck to collect two line specimens of Tudyim'lfa 
cfiipaLtoidcs. even then considered rather rare. Those two specimens nTe. 
still in my collection at the National Herbarium of NSW. 

My lather's new home at Btmlnyoug pi ove«i iavcniihbJe to my octivitiei 
among the orchids. Thirty-one specie; »rc recorded in the little census of 
local ]i"anls which I compiled in ]R9i'». It was there that 1 first met the 
delightful little Civhghitis gunnii; and in a hog uear the top of Mt. 
Ruiiuiyong T discovered the largest Grceihood I had ever seec. Il was 
al ihat time erroneously classed with /*, chcuIMo: nearly twenty years 
were to pass before the late Dr. .Rogers gave it its rightful status and 
named it P. jaicctta. 

The rest of uiy orchid records (i.e. of species actually collected hy me 
in the field) belong almost entirely 10 New South Wales and Tasiyiaiira. 
The number oi specie?, which 1 collected in Victoria, from about 1885 to 
lSv8 was just under 00 But numbers count f&T little hi memories; what 
One can newr forget is the thrill of a "iKVt" discovery, and the joy uf 
rambling through those bashlsnds of the Long Ago winch tvere the homes 
QJ the. flowers that one loved. 


At (he time of her death, August !>, |<>.i2, Mrs C H Fdmnndson bad 
been a member or the Club for hist over a half-century, and lately SI 
Honorary Menihr.i . When, as Mis* Lilian BaimVidgc, she joined the 
Club, shi' \vas the icteher of botany and physiology at Twtcrn Ladiej 
College, now Tinteni C ot K. G.G.5., and later became a member of the of this school. Soon after her marriage in 1904 her husband 
also became a meitibei of the Club. 

Dun'ng the. earlier years of he'* membership, Mrs. Rdtnoudson tegular ly 
attended meetings, frequently with interesting exhibit*, and joined in many 
excursions. She vvr<s most interested in the annual Wildflower Shows 
staged try the Qub, and worked hard for their success 

Mrs Edttiondsmt was one of the pioneers in die Girl Giji<lc movement 
in Victoria, and in that sphere ...1 action was able to use with advantage 
her knowledge of ot:r native plains and trees. An obituary notice nt the 
Guide rnagaiine said, "All who think or Mrs. Edntojidsoii with affcctiLJiate 
remembrance, think of her garden, her delight and h« expert interest. We 
always knew her with a flower." She became successively District Com- 
missioner. Divi5ion_Couituissionev. member of State Executive., and member 
of finance Sub-Committee. Mi*. Edmondsou's cheerful anil optimistic 
nature and unaffected charm of manner endeared her to all. -A.D.H. 


Showing now in place of Summer's green are the mellow 
golds and russets of Autumn. These hues — herolding 
the seoson of shorter doys — -are o vivid reminder that 
doy by day, month by month all things living change. 

Man, too, progresses through seasons. Your life changes 
. . . and your family's needs. You can't foresee what your 
needs will be ten or twenty years from now, but you can 
plan to meet them with o State Savings Bank account. 

The Future is Safe if You Save 


"Save at this Bank' 


At the- Club's Finance Committee Meeting ou March 22, 1953. 
it was estimated that the recent increase in annua] subscription 
rates would soon cause an easing of the financial strain which has 
so drastically restricted Club publications. The Committee bud- 
geted for an increase in expenditure on Volume 70 of the Victorian 
Naturalist: and this should allow the journal to regain some- 
what the standard. of previous years. 

The advertisements, which have occupied the first several pages 
ai each number for the past four years, are now discontinued. It 
was financially sound to' include them in 16-page issues, but the 
extra cost of printing 20 and 24 pages exceeds the income from 
the advertisements. Volume 69 was published at a net cost of 
much less than was originally intended, because from month to 
month the extra finance was simply not available. By limiting 
each number to 16 pages, including an average oi 4- of advertise- 
ments, and by restricting illustrative material, it was possible to 
continue publication. 

The special Lyrebird issue of September 1952 came at a time 
of actual financial embarrassment, and the present slight easing 
of that situation makes if possible -to expend the expenses saved, 
by the Ingram Trust's action in financing that issue, on enlarging 
Numbers 11 and 12 of Volume 69 to pick Dp the leeway of Club 
matter displaced by the special issue. 

The discontinuing of the advertisements is the most economic 
method available of increasing the monthly numbers (from about 
12, to Ore full 16 pages of Oub material per issue). Illustrations 
may now be more liberally used, and, if expectations are fulfilled, 
members, may look forward to larger issues of iht Victprian 
Naturalist in the near future. 


At the February meeting of the Club, -our Council Member. Mr 
A. A. Baker, was congratulated on his appointment as Curator to 
the Geology Department of the University of Melbourne. Mr. 
Baker said that he was sure that his association with this Club, 
and particularly with the Geology Discussion Group, was the 
factor which obtained the position for him. 

The appointment, is noted, too.. in. the .Geological Society of 
Australia's ' Navs Bulletin, Vol.; 1 ,,-No. "1 '(March 1953),"in which 
ihere is also the following entry: 

DISCUSSION GROUP. — Many field excursions have been conducted nftcc 
tin's group was inaugurated in February 194/5. Specimens collected are lodged 
with the National Museum. An interest in the coastal erosion at BUck 
Rock resulted in a n>»p being made oi this area in July 1947. Since then 
{(holograph* of the cliff* have been taken al regular intervals. Vast changes 
in Ihe cliff profiles have been recorded. Darelnn Creek is at present being 
mapped from its soutcc to the ionctlon with the River Yarra at Rew. 

The Victorian Naturalist 

VoL 69— No. 12 APRIL 9, 1953 No. 832 


Dr. Chattaway presided, and about 120 members and visitor:, 
were in attendance, at the General Meeting of the Cluh on March 
10, 1953. It was announced that Mr. A. E. Brooks had been 
appointed by Council to the position of Honorary Assistant Editor 

Misses MoUie Abbott, Gwenda Erskine and Jill Hassett, and 
Mr. Douglas Gunn were elected Ordinary Members, Mr. Give 
Fisher to Country Membership, and Ronald Tremevvan as a Junior 
Member The President welcomed these new members tn the Club 

The Meeting was then handed over to Mr. A. W. Burston, who 
conducted the first part of the National Parks Symposium. The 
details of the lectures presented are given in this issue of the 
Vict. Nat. 

The Secretary announced that nominations for the 1953 recipient 
of the Australian History Medallion must be made at the next 
meeting. At the same time nominations would be required for 
Office-bearers and Council. Particular consideration should bs 
given to the appointment of a new Honorary Treasurer, for that 
position wifl fall vacant, and there is at present no Assistant. Mem- 
bers were asked to make nominations themselves, rather than 
leave Council to attend to appointments. 

Miss Lynctte Young reported that an oil refinery was being 
established at Kurnell. the site of Captain Cook's historic landing 
at Botany Bay. The spoiling of this National Monument wa* 
proceeding despite protests and the availability of an alternate 
site at Port Stevens. 


Miss Ina Watson described how an incli-long mantis in her garden had 
eaten a blowfly, taking just 2$ tnimitei from the first "crunch" to the final 
"wiping of whiskers", Sb« wondered if other members might time a similar 
feat and determine whether her mantis had established a record! 

Dr. Chattaway commented on the cessation of nectar-flow in Sugar Cum* 
si the You Yangs. Lorikeets and bee* departed suddenly though actual 
flowering ^continued.. Dr. Melville suggested that dry weather was responsible^ 
and he cited the example of a Ctaiw'thim which produced no nectar 00 firM 
flowering hut was induced to do 50 by copious watering. 

Mr. "farlton Rayment commented that the native bees can survive a 
nectar. less period, whereas the introduced honey-bee cannot. .He remarked 
further that, in the Bos group of cticalypts, tht outer row of anthers tend- 
to become sterile and curve over to shelter the inner ones. At .one Box 
forest in north-east Kew South Wales, the "disappearing disease" caused the 
loss c{ '12,000 hives. It was a matter of pollen-starved larvae producing bee; 
too weak tn return to their hives against even a light breeze. ' ■ ;-■ 

U<5 National Parts Synipojiwr [ y (1 j < J 1 " 


In opening the symposium, Mr. A! W. Burstoti pointed out ou 
<i map the positions of the thirteen Victorian National Parks and 
six other important reserves. The Parks are Wypcrfield, Kinglakc, 
Ferntree Gully, Wilsons Promontory, Mount Buffalo, Spcrmwhale 
Head, Lind Park, Alfred Park, VYingan Inlet, Mallacoota inlet, 
Tarra Valley, Bulga Park and Tower Hill; and the other areas 
are Buchan Laves, Wcrribec Gorge, Churchill, Phillip Island, Sir 
Colin McKenzie Sanctuary and Koala Sanctuaries. 

Mr. F. Lewis explained that the prosperity of the country de- 

iiended on the primary products, necessitating the destruction of 
lahitats of the native fauna. Some birds and animals, such as the 
Kookaburra, Magpie. Koala and Possum, were adaptable to new 
conditions, but others were not In the Western District of Vic- 
toria the numi>ers of kangaroos, wallabies, and emus have been 
greatly reduced; the Cape Barren and Magpie Geese, the Brolga 
and Bustard have almost or completely disappeared. In Gippsland. 
a small wallaby and the Koala have suffered ; while the Lowan, 
which has practically gone from Western Australia and Ne.w 
South Wales, is now rare in South Australia and Victoria. The 
solution is not in the restriction of the clearing of land, to the detri- 
ment of food production, nor in the enforcing of protective laws, 
hut in the proper selection and maintenance of suitable National 
Parks. Trus lias been done in other countries, notably U.S.A., 
Canada and East and South Africa. Queensland has a National 
Parks Association; but, while that Stale lias considered flora, 
geology and scenery, the fauna has been neglected — with drastic 
results to koalas, emus and kangaroos. In Victoria the National 
Parks are valueless land administered by committee* of manage- 
ment with only a negligible revenue from grazing leases or fire- 
wood royalty, resulting in complete frustration and often cessation 
of activity. In Victoria we now have a National Parks Association, 
which recently tendered a very constructive report to the Govern- 
ment. A bill was drafted, but the Association is now concerned 
with its revision, mainly to have expert park managers appointed, 
to avoid the possibility of any park area being alienated simply by 
Order of Council, and to eliminate the leasing for grazing by local 
committees. Mr. Lewis illustrated the necessity for fauna con 
scrvation with a fine coloured film showing intimate shots of some 
of our rli.ssppco.rmg bird species- -Emu, Cape Barren Goose, 
|j5wan, etc, and Macqirarie Island penguins. 

Professor J. S. Turner disposer! that not one of our thirteen 
Victorian parks was well administered, and proceeded to demon- 
strate proper methods of organization by reference to two in 
U.S.A. The Yosemitc National Park, in the middle of California, 
covers 1,176 square miles, with snow-capped mountains to the 



April, 1953 

irolftH* ■'! ''»' Hcalwvillc Sanctuarj 

r\,..n.: V l..w, 

l.nwaii ;il it* N'rstiuH Mirtiuil, m llif Victorian MriUiv 


Plate XII 

April, V)S.\ 

*,j^] Kotiwal Parks Symposium 1*9 

cast and numerous streams tumbling over ledges and precipices 
sometimes over a mile high. The Yosemitc Valley itself occupies 
only about 8 square miles of the vast area, and is the most visited 
National Park area in U.S.A. IL is traversed by a network of roads 
and contains hotel and cottage accommodation for visitors, thus 
providing revenue tor proper administration Spectacular colour 
slides were slK.'Wn. including some of the Yosemitc Falls, which 
have a. total drop of 2,370 feet in their three leaps, and of the 
gigantic granite crags known as El Capitan and the Half Dome 
Profcssur Turner suggested that the Wilsons Promontory National 
Park should be organized on the lint's of Ynsemitc. The second 
example of a United States reserve was the Organpipe National 
Park in the desert of Arizona, established to protect the giant 
Organpipe Cactus. This park was likened hy the speaker co the 
Wyperfield Reserve in the Victorian Malfee: and again some 
beautiful slides were shown. Perhaps the most interesting point 
ui' connection with these United States Parks is that they have 
well organized museums and resident naturalists, providing guid- 
ance and instruction for visitors, 

Mrs. H. S Hanks; spoke on Wyperfield National Park — Vic- 
toria's largest, with an area exceeding that of Buffalo, Wilsons 
Promontory and Spermwhale Head combined. It is not spec- 
tacular, with its dry lakes, sand-dunes, and light forest of Red 
Gum, Black Box. Murray Pine, Cherry Ballaru Malice and 
smaller scrub; but it is nf great interest tn naturalists nevertheless. 
ForlunateJy. the holder of the grazing lease is interested in fiuru 
and fauna preservation and he polices the area against illegal 
interference.. Many colourful slides were shown of the topography 
and flora-types, as well as many of b»ds taken by the late A. H 
Mattingley during the R.A.O.U. camp-out there. The Spiny- 
cheeked Honeyeater, Red-throated Whistler, Striated Grass-Wren 
and Gwlet Nightjar were seen, all at their nests. The reason for 
opposing the "cleaning up" of the park floor was demonstrated 
with pictures of the ground-nesting Spotted Nightjar, Chestnut- 
backed Quail-Thrush and Scrub Robin. The Wyperfield Reserve 
is a stronghold of the Major Mitchell Cockatoo and the Smoker 
or Regent Parrot. 

Mr. J. R. Garnet spoke briefly on Victorian National Park 
finance, mentioning the apparently libeial proposed grant of 
1300.000, which, however, would have been tied up with Country 
Roads Board work on access to the reserves, and not for the 
essentia) of providing rangers and curators. Ferntree, 
Gully had used a £5,0OO allowance on the establishing of concrete 
tracks, etc., but a change in government had terminated suck 

150 Tacl Fisc.H. Vint to Vomit tiuilrr [ V y"i *?' 

By Pauc. Fiscm, Doncastcr 
A three-day trip to Mt. Buller m mid-January 1952 proved 
most interesting and instructive. We left Boncaster at 11 am. On 
January 19, ami at n p.m. were erecting our tent among the snow- 
gurtts of Cow-Camp some £>00 feet below (lie summit. The route 
wc chose was by way of Hcalesville and Blacks.' Spur to Alexandra, 
i hence to Eildon, Mansfield, Merrijig and Merimba. From the 
De.lntite River at Merimba to Cow-Camp the narrow well-graded 
mud climbs 3,000 feet and only about the List mile is rough. Cow- 
Camp is a saddle on the mountain ridge that branches off the 
Great Dividing Range from Mt. Howitt in a westerly direction 
and of which Mt. Buller (5,911 feet) is the most prominent peak 
The ridge is flanked on the north side by the Delatite .and on the 
south side by the Howipia, both tributary rivers of the Gotilbwrn. 

At Cpw-Camp, 5,200 feet above sea level, one finds two rock 
formations. The northern side of the saddle and the hill towards 
the east consist of granite, and the southern side of the saddle 
i> composed of Older Basalt, The first rise, called "Bakjy" (5,700 
feet), west of Cow-Camp, still consists of Older Basalt, with some 
fine columns showing on its southern scarp, just before the final 
>teep climb up to the crags of the summit, granite is in evidence 
Again, and two fine springs issue forth, one flowing towards the 
Delatite and the other towards the Howqua. Mt. Buller peak con- 
sists of Palaeozoic sediments which seem to Iw? very resi.vtant tn 
OTOsion, and some of tile rocks show very good examples of folding 
and faulting. 

An ancient river valley occurred in the vicinity of Cow-Camp 
and ir BaIdy" in Oligocene times, and was subsequently filled by 
an Older Basaltic lava flow. Duiing Pliocene and early Pleistocene 
limes the so-called Kosciusko Uplift caused an acceleration of the 
dissecting power of the streams, thus forming the deep valleys and 
the Basalt Residual ot "Mt Baldy". While the granitic and basaltic 
formations give the mountain a rounded character, the sediments 
of the peak fall off very steeply towards che valleys, same 4,000 
feet below. 

At the time of our visit the alpine flora was at its best and the 
summit was a veritable rock-garden, The most prominent and 
showy species were Bulbttic Lily, Mountain Shaggy-pea, Common 
Billy Buttons, Alpine. Westringia. Alpine Eycbrighr, Snow Aci- 
phyll, Brachycirtnc Hgidula and Ghana fiavetcens. Also present, 
liut just 6nisbed flowering, were the Tufted Buttercup and the 
Long-leaf Hovea. In the Sphagnum bogs of "Baldy" there were 
4*0 flowering ..colonies of Richea, together with Silver Daisy ; and 
the Mountain Hum Pine, growmg prostrate over the crags of 
the summit must be of very great age. At approximately 5,600 

1053 J 

Paul Fiscii, Visit to Mount Butler 


feet on "Baldy" occurs the upper tree-line of the snow gums, 
above which a rich alpine pasture provides summer grazing for 
cattle. The beautiful snow gums of Cow-Camp seem to have 
always escaped hush-fires, and now provide excellent shelter for 
a village of winter-sport cottages. On granitic country to the east, 
masses of Grass Trigger-plants and Royal Bluebells (IVahlen- 
bcrgia gloriosa) were flowering. 

The most unexpected finds at our camp were aboriginal stone 
artefacts, three axe-heads and a sharpening stone on which axe- 
heads were ground. 

Artefacts from Cow-Camp Photo: u. T. Rwvea 

Axe-head 1, consisting of Felspar Porphyry (probably of local origin). 
Edge ground, but subsequently broken. Weight 22 02. , length Si in., 
width 2g in., and thickness lj in. 
Axe-head 2, consisting of Diorite or dioritic type of rock (resembling 
rock from the Mt. William aboriginal quarry). Weight 12 oz., 
length 3| in., width 2\ in., thickness li in. 

[Both 1 and 2 have ground cutting edges and are also hammer- 
Axe-head 3, consisting of chiastolite slate. Weight 18 oz., length 6i in., 
width 3 J in., and thickness 1J in. This specimen possesses a well 
ground edge but is not hammer-dressed, the shape being obtained 
by flaking. 
The sharpening -stone consists of a slab of hard sedimentary rock with 
a well-worn groove caused by grinding. 
The artefacts were found on sandy turf overlaying granite, 
indicating that the aborigines chose the comparatively warm camp 
sites of granite in preference to those of basalt. 


J. R. Garnet, Natural History Medallion 

TVict, Nat. 
L Vol. fi9 

One can well imagine that the well-grassed slopes of "Baldy" 
and Mt. Buller attracted a considerable native fauna ( Wallabies, 
Emus, etc.) during the summer months when the lowlands were 
parched, and that the aborigines followed, hunting this game for 
food. Possibly too, the natives visited the locality to feed on the 
Bogong Moths which gather in enormous numbers in rock crevices 
in altitudes of Mts. Hotham, Buffalo and Bogong. Although at 
the time of our visit we did not observe these moths, it is most 
probable that at the right time they would be present on Mt. Buller. 

So the locality must have been a very suitable camping ground, 
providing the tribes with five essentials — food, water in a small 
soak, shelter, timber, and suitable rocks for the making of stone 

Ch.M., F.R.A.C.P., 1'rofessor Emeriti* 
been awarded the Australian Natural 


John Burton Cleland, C.B.E., M.D. 
of the University of Adelaide, has 
History Medallion for 1952. 

His nominations by the Royal 
Society of South Australia, the 
Field Naturalists' Section of the 
Royal Society and the South Aus- 
tralian Ornithological Association. 
were for his outstanding contribu- 
tions to botany, ethnology, anthro- 
pology and general natural history : 
and he has devoted considerable 
energy to the cause of flora and 
fauna protection and preservation. 

Among biologists throughout the 
Commonwealth he is known — as a 
one-time microbiologist in the New 
South Wales Department of Public 
Health, as the Government Path- 
ologist and Bacteriologist in West- 
ern Australia, and, since 1920, as 
Professor of Pathology at the Uni- 
versity of South Australia. His 
investigations into Q-fever in 
Queensland and the encephalitis 
outbreaks in the Murray Valley 
are among his important contribu- 
tions to medical knowledge. Though, 
since 1929, a member of the Board 
of Anthropological Research (Univ. 
of Adel, ), and currently the Deputy Chairman of the Aborigines Protection 
Board in South Australia, and joint author of a long paper on the Natives 
of South Australia published in the South Australian Centenary History. 
among field naturalists he is in the forefront as a botanist and ornithologist. 

Responsible for the establishment of the Science Guild Handbook Com- 
mittee of which he is Chairman, his own contribution to that series — Toad- 
stools and Mushrooms of South Australia — was published during the years 

Prof. J. B. Cletand 
By courtesy H'i7d Life •£- OuMoat 

^«b"] J- R ' C A *' V ". iVa/wra/ History Medallion 153 

1934-5 ; and he became joint editor, and member of a team of botanists com- 
pleting the revision o? the Flora of South Australia— smother contribution 
to tbo same series. 

Readers of periodicals such as the South Australian Nnturalist, the 
Trantattions of the Royal Society of South Attstralia. the fzutu, Australian 
Avian Record, South Australian Omitholot/isl, and the Victorian Naturalisi 
know his ability to hlend enthusiasm and the professional scientific approach 
His more recent papers have been concerned largely with plant distribution 
and ecology 

Apart from those civic and scientific offices he has acted as Chairman oi 
the South AustrSthan National Park Commission siiice 1940 (he was 
appointed as Commissioner in 1929) and, since J930. as a member of the 
Flora and Fauna Protection Board, which has campaigned vigorously to 
prevent the alienation of part of the Flinders Chase sanctuary. 

At various times lie has filled the office of President of the Royal Societies 
of both N.S.W, and S.A.. the RA.O.U and the Ornithological Association 
of South Australia and has acted as Chairman oi the Field Naturalists' 
Section of the Royal Society of South Australia, of which he (us been a 
member fflf more than thirty years. 

Although now in hi? seventy- fifth year his interest? and energy appear 
unabated the years weigh lightly on his shoulders, and field excursions are 
nill var't of his rcercJiioo 3nd vnjoywent, Finally it should bo «otcd that 
Professor Clc-land has been a member of our F.N.C.V, since 19'13. 

—J. R. Gabnet. 

6en«r«l CxcurtiOMs: 

Saturday, April IS — Excursion to St. Albans (weather permitting). Sub- 
ject: Mallee Flora. Leader: Mr. K. Atkins. Take S.46 a.irt. St. Albany 
train from Flinders Street; bring on? meal, (Walk of 5 miles.) 

Salurdav. May 2 — Excursion 1a ShcrbrooVe Forest. Subject: Fungi. 
Leaders! Messrs. J. H Willis and H. Leo. Take 9.18 a.m. Uppex 
Ferntree GuJly train (express Richmond to Box Hill). Ihcn Olinda 
bits to Memorial Gales Bring one meal. Party limited to 40, nant«s to 
be sent to K. Atkins, Botanic Gardens. South Yarra. S.E.L 

Geology Group Excursions; 

Saturday, April 18 — Moonee Ponds Creek, Ascot Vale. Subject; "Cenhlo- 
pods". Leader: Mr. A. A. Baker. Take Esscttdon tram to Ormotid 
Road, or Ihc "West Brunswick bus from Scroll Sand=. Hotel, Sydney 
Roail. Brunswick. Meet at bridge -it 2.30 

Saturday. May 9— Korkuperrimul Creek, BaccItU". Marsh. Subject I "Basalt 
Rocks". Leader: Mr. A A Baker Private transport from FKndcrr 
Slrcct at Elizabeth Street loading ramp, 9 o'clock sharp; bring t>vo 
meals. Walk ot 6 miles. 

Group fixtures; 

OiWng to building operations at 1hc Royal Society Hall, group meetinirs. 
,will be discontinued until further notice. 

Kfnnkth Atkins, Excursion Secretary. 


From Rev. G. Variot of French Morooro comes a rcsjuen for scire 
specimens of the larger insects characteristic of Australia, to aid in the 
leaching of entomology and for private work, Groups mentioned arc 
Califoptera, especially. Ceramhycids (longiconi beetles) and Priimids : 
Ortboptcra, especially PJiorwidr f suck-insects) and Mousids; and Dcrmap- 
tern (earwigs). Rev "Variot ia interested particularly in the species wbk'i 
have developed imitative camouflage; and he otTcrs Moroccan insects in 
exchange TViOse w|io are interested should communicate with Miss C. 
Crerner. Plant Research Lsb., Swan Street, Burnley. E.3. 

i5A Tauxox Uavme-VT, Btovd-Siubfrtg Mid&s Pvli. tf" 

By Taruto* Rayment 
Honorary Hymenoptcrist, National Museum, Victoria 

J have just examined two amazing arms— kWOo ones resembling the 
pebble-grain of certain leathers. 

But let me tell you about it, tor the story it well worth recounting, lit these 
days of hustle (alas, the enemy of that placid contemplation in which all 
true research is horn) even honey-hecs arc drawn into the infernal racket. 
They are whirled from place to place so that another harvest shall he 
gathered m to feed a hungry world. 

tn the carJy spring my bee-farmer friend, Lesley Rush of Black Rock- 
wlto ii perhaps not unknown to you, had transported his hives and some of 
mine to central Victoria, where there was a promise of nectar for the bee? 
Lesley set up camp among trees in the "On* Kye Forest" — •no hoary joke 
of an eye squinting grotesquely after attack by in irate bee! The amusing 
burlesque of the white titan's name is unfortunately true and it actually 
appear* thus an official plans of the forest. The aborigines, simple fellows, 
lirobably had a much more melodious name, such as "Kinui-wallan" ov 
"Araf-kira"; \vhk-h la^t may be freely translated as "the kind eye' — but 
then, our dark-skinned brethren arc so primitive, vou knovp. 

T]tc winter and spring of 1952, yon will remember, was drenched with 
rain. It teemed down in and out nt season, creeks ran as 1ney Iwd never 
run before, cattle were drowned^-sonie people, too. Now, if the people 
of "One Eye" protested that they had had more than enough, certain midge- 
like flics actually rejoiced in the flood* and ineteased beyond the wildest 
dreams of the entomologists These tiny creatures, a mere two or ihrec 
millimetres in length, owe their lives, to water, lor the larvae flock together 
•■> targe colonies on rocks in running streams, and would like to have 
space to tell you of the strange silky hags in which, ibey pupate. 

Prudently, of course. Les wears the usual bee-veil of commercial apiarists, 
hut he if: ahlc to SOC about him myriads of midges or sand-flies — you may 
have your choice of word. 

A plain lriati ts Les, one not given to suspect evil in others: so he wwki 
in. Whenever both hands an: occupied with lilting the heavy hives, gnats, 
midges, S3nd-flicj (or what you will) descend on his biros, bared well abovt 
the elbow. The flies bite, viciously; they draw blood until they are bleated 
with the living red fluid Moreover, the litttc savages force a way through 
any crevice in the clothing; they crawl up over his sod i and bi'e him on 
ankles and legs, Les can dip his trousers close about his legs, but arms 
must be bare for quick hard work. 

Everyone know;- that a man cailnut carry something requiring the use of 
both hands, <and B1 the same time defend himself. So Les has to endure 
the torment, until he has had probably thousands of hites. A few days elapse 
before he is able to visit me, recount Ins patnlv! experiences in the "One Kye 
Forest", and bring a few of the flics. 

I said his arms felt like "pcbbli--graine<l leather'', for each bik was iiiarketj 
by a small red speck, surrounded by a hard tubercle of swollen flesh One 
could hardly put 3 match-head between the bites. The irritation banished 
all sleep. The constant itchiness forced him to seek a momentary relic! bj 
scratching; only then, the irritation increased to an unbearable degree. 

CoviH I suggest any remedial measures? Well, at least a preventive one — 
wash the hands and arms before beginning the work of the day, and at noon, 
with a_ weak solution of carbolic acid crystals {phenol) dissolved in water, 
for this will repel all insect attackers, including the bees themselves. 

Oh, about the'flivs I lake a specimen or two into, the Museum and discuss 
them with my esteemed collaborator. Alex. N. Burns. We agree that the 

H MR Rurr, />vmiW»Jf/iii4- Iftfjutfft 


flies, are of a dreaded b\ood-i-ucker,Aiiftrosimtdiini> Victorian . In the family 

Peoples of the world have learned to dread (he great hordes of these tiny 
lovers of human blood. In New Zealand they are known as "Midge flics"; 
in England, "Gnat-flies" are abundant, breeding in water; in America, the 
*moky cloud* of "Buffalo-gnats" are alarming. My old and lamented friend, 
the late Keith McKeown, considered that Australia was fortunate in not 
having the cloud-like hordes of America ; but then, Keith had never been in 
the "One Eye Forest" of Victoria 1 



Note by the Rev. H. M. R. RfflUt, Willoughb), N.S.W. 

la this journal [59: 173 (Feb. 1943)], the late W. H. Nicholls described 
and figured a new genus of orchids with a solitary species, which he named 
Drymoanlhits ninuttw The specimen upon which he based his observations 
had been in his possession for move than two years, and it was Originally 
collected by Mr. A. Glindeman at Mt. Fox, near Ingham in north Queens- 
land. This diminutive epiphyte was not recorded again until January of 
the present year, when Mr, J. H, Wilkic of Babinda, N,Q„ collected several 
plants with budding racemes and sent them to Mr, Norman Loader of 

Castlecrag, M.S.W. The plants them- 
selves looked so different from the one 
depicted by Mr, Nicholls. I.e. that at 
first a new species was suspected. But 
as tlte flowers opened, they were seen 
to agree completely m every detail with 
those figured hy Nicholls. Jt was then 
realized that the plant attains greater 
dimensions than was suspected by the 
Author of the genus, and mature speci- 
mens possess stems upwards of 3 cm 
in length, on the lower portions of 
which are a number of old withered 
racemes with persistent floral bracts. 
The leases in all the Babinda speci- 
mens are rather rigidly reflexed. This 
feature is lacking in the solitary plant 
of Nicholls's plate, but that may be 
accounted for by its development for 
more tliau two years under glasshouse 
conditions. The perfect agreement oi 
all the Horal details with those given 
by Nicholls ten years ago forbids any 
doubt as to the identity of the specie*. 
Because of Ins inability to obtain any 
further material after the type speci- 
men had been consigned to his her- 
barium, the author once expressed to 
the present writer some misgivings 
about his action in erecting a new 
genus on ihc evidence of a single plant 
Ue would doubtless have been delighted to hear of the re-discovery of 
Drymaaftthis by Mr. Wilkic, and to team Oial this little orchid, though 
Mill ranking as a diminutive, is not quite so insignificant as be. had supposed. 
INSET — MA«urt plurrt ot Drv«i(i»«»|it<^ mtiwltll >lcholl5. from ftihiiuta, N". Q'land. 

156 X. A. WiVKEFiEu>, Mi. Rutlf'i Botanical Century [ V ^^ 1, 


By N. A. Wakefikij> 

March 22 this year wai. the centenary of a very important cvetit 
in the history of Australian botanical exploration, for it was on 
that day m 1^.3 that Baron von Mueller ascended Mt. Buller. He 
had already explored the Buffalo Ranges earlier iu March and 
ascended Mt. Aberdeen (The Horn) ; and the significance of his 
next move is gauged from his report: 

A* Mount Aberdeen offered hardly any plants of a true alpine charac- 
ter, I resolved to ascend Mount Buffer, whose summits, at an elevation 
of more thao 5,000 feet, are covered thrOttfcfaout the grn-atcr |)J(T of (lie 
year with snow. Travelling quite alone since leaving flic Buffalo Kange.v 
the ascent was not accomplished without considerable danger. But 1 
was delighted to observe here, lor the first time, this continent's AlpfrK 
vegetation, which in some degree presented itself as analagous with 
the alpirif flora of Tasmania . . . ,antl which was also hy no mean- 
destitute of its own peculiar species (l J hcbnlium podpcdrputdej. . . . 
Oxyliibium olpciif, urocliycQine nivalis, Anisotovw plnckilis, etc) .... 
Mount Buller had tnvr before bWH scientifically explored. 

Thus the Baron made his acquaintance -with the flora of the 
Australian Alps, and Mt Buller soon became a tvpc locality for 
several new .species of plant's, In most cases, other localities were 
cited also with the descriptions of these, but it is certain that this 
mountain provided the first known specimens of almost all of them. 
Besides the four already mentioned in Mueller's own repurl. there 
are Bracliycomi' nm'tHauUs (a form of B. rigiduh) , Damhomn 
robiista (syn. — D pallida) , A yrostts nivalis (= Uryenxia vrassw\- 
cula). Deyeuxia frigida, Fcstuca imtelkri and Wcttrivgia se'mfolw. 
Of alt these Mt. Buller is n type locality. 

The late D«. C. S Sutton did a certain amount pi collecting at 
Ml. Buller, anil he. wrote a ^hort rqiurt in the Vict. Nat. 23: ITS 
itt February 190?. On January 4. 1945., our eiiergeiic botanist', 
Mr. J. H. Willis, managed to fit in two hours there on his wav 
from Mt. Cobbler to Mansfield (See Vict. Nal. 62: 138, 9— 
December 1945). In that year Mr. Willis compiled a census of 
the known flora of the Barry Mountains (frum Ml. St. Bernard 
to Mt. Speculation ) together wi1h Mt. Cobbler Plateau and Mt. 
Buller. 'the plants noted as occurring in the summit area of 
Ml. Buller numbered 1)3 species. With this background in inirirl, 
a party of five paid a visit to the mountain during the labour 
Day week-end.. March 7 to 9, 1953. H included Dr. R. Melville 
of the Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, Mr, J, II. Willis and the 
writer. Weather was ideal for the ihree days, so lhat a maximum 
'if hotanicul exploration was, possible. 

Though it was late in the day (March 7) when the party was 
established m the Ivor Whittaker Memorial Lodge, as guests of 


Platk XTII 

April, 1953 

\ 'ir« uf tin- -.Mniniii »( Mt FtulkT, liKiking iroin the riwiuklcr 
of "BaUIy" .H r. .~- the "Spring*" 

knval UliiL-lii-tlh, with a liai-k.unnuicl ni Mullicr Slik'lil kni, 
under the basaltic scarp of "Ijalily" 


Sunniys and Dhimcs mi tliu north slope 

Gentians mi tli*.' south sIcijk- of Mt. Biilti'i- 

I'""] N fc> WAKwnu.n. /l/^w/if liuller'* Botanical Century 157 

the. Ski Club of Victoria, each botanist spent an hour or so on 
"Baldy", between the ski settlement and the main summit. The 
"find" of the excursion, Cystopteris jragiUs, turned up in crevices 
of the basaJtic southern scarp of Baldy. This little fern had been 
recorded only four times before in Victoria — always in the Spray 
of falling water, but on this occasion it was growing quite abun- 
dantly here and there for several hundred yards,, in the rather 
dry cliffs. In the same locality, Sencdo pectirwhts was flowering. 
Some members of the patty examined Ihe bftggy creek -bead known 
a* "The Springs", jusc north of the summit, and saw there 
Prasopliyllum suiiomi and the tiny ExOcarpws nana. Acacia sicu- 
Hjormis ascends here to about 5,600 feet. 

The next day a party including Melville and Willis made the 
long hike along the main top round Ihe heads of the Delafile River 
to Mt. Stirling. Two tareties came to light: l.ycopodhim sdago 
on tno.ssy rocks under masses of Oxylubiuw, and C<imx jaclduna 
in one of the bogs. Eucalyptus pttriniana was growing in the 
lowest saddle between the two mountains, in one of the few re- 
maining areas of unburnl Alpine Ash. On the same day, the 
writer confined his attention to the rocky summit of Mt. Buller 
itself. On the way, the Springs were investigated and Snrpus 
■DveMhi and Hurodiloe redofens noted there. On the 5,9tX)-foot 
summit, Agrostis muclleriana was abundant on rocky ledges, and 
the diminutive Sclcianthus mmmrotdes and Sclnzeilema jmgosrum 
were growing amongst the Snow Guws On the steep southern 
slope. These three grow here just as they do On the (5,000-toot 
summit of the Cnbboras Mountains 

Before leaving for the lowlands again on March 9, further atten- 
tion was paid to the interesting Sphagnum bog at the head of the 
Springs, and there were found Trochoearpu cliifhei, Schoerms 
ralyptr&tus and the Carcx jackiann again. Agrnstis parmflora- was 
abundant in most wet places. 

These 17 plant species were almost all additions to Willis's 
Barry Mountains-Buller list, but as most 6E them arc insignificant 
many have probably escaped notice before, and may not be nn- 

At this season vf the year, one misses the main glory of the 
alpine shrubbery. The acres of IVestrvugw, Grtvillm, Havf.a, 
Oxytobittm, Plwbnlmvt, Platmndropxis, Olearia and Qrites speak 
of a magnificent spectacle up there above the trec-hne. But even 
in March, the glory is not all departed. Royal Btuebell displays 
its deep colour almost everywhere, daisies mass here and there 
to provide the rocky slopes with vivid splashes of mauve, and in 
lome places the Paper Sunray makes an unbroken blaze of gold 
for acres, But most exquisite o[ all is the Mountain Gentian, in 
•full flower here and there down the grasay southern >I«j|jc, the 


153 f.eo Hour*,' Hybrids of Nalii.i Plant* [ V vji. wT' 

colour ranging from wbtte to pale blue and some plants over a foot 

All but two of Mueller's original iVU. Buffer species were 
observed on this occasion, the. exceptions being the two large 
grasses (Danlhonia and h'esiuca), which have evidently been 
grazed out of existence. At least a hundred caitte were present 
above the tree-line, and the state of both the vegetation and 
ground surface told the usual story of destruction. All told, there 
was an addition of over 50 plant names ro the known alpine flora 
of Mt. Fuller, a fitting commemoration of Baron von' Mueller's 
commencement of the work a hundred years ago. 


By Leo Haunt. \V Tree* 

* TTif writer of these rides is .1 > E»si Giposljnd (.inner livinr UriHI lf> niilet nnrih 
r.f ISaehxi, mil he ha* recently V#vn »**;tcd js a Country Member o( this Dub. Hiv 
cflorts itl Ibe cultlvitifts of Australian tihutl h,ivc met with rcnmrleablc *ucrc»s <veu 
■Hough The locality h»s revere itmuun and spring frosts js well as winter snows. In bin 
Quartet'* terc house block rhcte Mt Ueea, ihrulis ami htrlw ui about 100 local «l*<.ie* as 
heII as 60 uthet Australian natives, mr.xt <.« of which *rc the Aoivri kinds ol 
PtrmadKvris »nd almost 1 score of itrciilfoax. While exploring the Snowy Klv**r gorge* 
in quest of -suitnht* subject* for the garden, Mr. Hods* found Oi.tet\4ivc Mt*» 0( BorOni* 
hdifoha, winch was not previously recorded fur Victoria, and it Wturfash new ti» 
Mltrice. ' 

— Editor. 

Here are a few notes about two hybrid plants which i have growing in 
my garden 

One is a PrvttiiH-tJwra ariose parentis arc P. fo.iinnittiu am) P. W'tiioHv- 
I found this plant on a hot, rocky, north-west side of .a nionrruiti-lup between 
the Snowy River and Butchers Creek, east of where 1 live (W Tree) 
It was growing amongst quite a number of seedlings and mature plants 01 
P. JWiVt/d/nr. The other parent. P. Uufaitikoit grows itiite plentifully alonj; a 
cieelc about half a mile distant. This hybrid plant hat now grown into a 
dense, shrub 7 feet high and 11 feet wide T.eavcs arc rather smooth, .stiff, 
lanceolate, slightly serrate, H lo H in. in length a.iid about £ in; wide 
Flowers resemble thuse of P. fyicifutia but art not so dark in the throat and 
do not open so wide. These are produced in' a panicle much the same as 
that of P. lasimthat, but whereas the panicle oi the latter is usually devoid 
of leaves and the bracts fall oft as Mowers mature, this, hybrid usually tmr. 
small leaves subtending the branches ot the panicle as well as the flowers 
themselves. Thus the flowers are in effect solitary m the leaf a?tik as in 
P. yaicijolUi, These leaves Or brai ts of the- inflorescence are persistent until 
the seeds mature, after which the whole panicle withers. The seeds are very 
small and may not he fertile. 

The other hybrid is a Brn<h^co»u whose parent plants are B. rifj'uiiilit ami 
a form of B. ac\<te\\\ii. The ionncx <.atnc from the Buchan River and the 
latter from llie rocks along the Snowy. 1 grew both for some time in a 
flowerbed in the home garden. The plant of B. ric/itlnla died eventually, but 
B. acidaita lormed quite an extensive mass. Many seedlings of the lane- 
have appeared, and amongst them was one with foliage intermediate; 'between 
that of the two species. The leaved are not divided as finely as in B '.- ritiiduh . 
the flowers arc larger than those of either jistrent, and-the seeds are.appaientl> 
nol fertile 

**i\l J- H - Wiuis. Myth o) MacTonutrixiM in W.A. 159 

I A Me« Note) 

By J. H Wiu-ts, National Herbarium, Victoria 

A bryologist, visiting West Australian forests, is struck at once by the 
ribsence of many family groups that arc conspicuous in the moss flora ot 
the eastern States^ whatever rainfall and growth arc comparable 
For instance, no member of the Polytrichaeeiv, Rhixogoniacee, Lcmlith 
pliyllatfp^ H^t>9(ncnyi<i<i<i or Hypiatttt (svnsn stricto) has ever been 
recorded from the West. 

^WiicT<7iw>ruM>» is a very laigc genus of chiefly tropical mosses that creep 
on the bark oi trees. Two species, M, mcii-rvijoliHin- (Hook & Grev.) 
Sehwgc. and M. inwlulijolium (Hook & (jicv,) Schwgr., were recorded 
•or King George's Sound, W.A., by F. Scbwaegrirhen in Part 2 ot his 
second supplement to Hedwig*s Spends htnscotum FrmuJosarum; p. 144 
(1827) ; but, despite all the -extensive collectings of Drumtnond, Preiss and 
F. Mueller in the middle of the last century and of several quite recent 
I m->i. in ',!.'.. no subsequent specimen of any Macrnniitriwm has been taken in 
Western Australia. Dice naturally wonders whether the original records 
were reliable. 

Watts and' Whiteleggc (Moss supplement to Proc. Linur, Soc. N.S.W,. 
\> 101, 1905) drop the Australian record of M. incunifolimu altogether and, 
under M. vi'-otutijohuvi, remarks 'that the W.A. record is "open to doubt" 
Brolherus (Katur. Pfiwscnj., Mwsri, 1925 ed, p. 41) restricts the former 
lo Indonesian and Pacific Island distribution, but repeats the King George's 
Sound locality for the latter species (p. 39) Both mosses were described 
originally under the genus Orthrtriehum Jby Hooker and Greville (finh / 

btrrgh )nyfn\. Scif'ti:?, I: 117. T. 4 & 5, 1924). By courtesy o( the Regius &/ 

Keeper, Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, I was recently privileged to 
examine the two type collections from Grrevillc's herbarium, and we shall 
now consider each of diem briefly : 

1. M, JNCURVIFQLIUM. Schwgr. The »ingle specimen, with one fruit, 

is labelled i "Orthot. incun-ifolium H & G. Tematc. Dickson". There 
is no mention of King George's Sound. Sine* Ternate is- a small 
island off the west coast of Halmahcra. il is unlikely that such a 
tropical Indonesian tree moss would occur also, on the south ooasl 
of W«iern Australia. Schwaegriclten's record is certainly puzzling. 
Brotherus gyres Java, Anibwua. Tahiti and Pitcairn Island as addi- 
tional localities— all remote from King George's Sound, 

2. Af. l.Vl'QIMTIh'QUUAt Schwgr. The type sheet of QrlUairirfrnm 

Uivbtvtifotiiim If. & G. carries what purport to be (wo collections 
oilc is over the label "Paramatta. .Australia Hobsoit, [9Zi".\ the other 
over "King George's Sound, Dickson". Both examples might well 
have Conic off the sunt plant ; they are so completely similar in form, 
i coloration and stage of development — even the same little hepatic 
threads itself among th»ir rhizoids 1 doubt whether Hobion and 
l)ick*on (British botanists who kept herbana of cryptogams) ever 
collected these specimens themselves in the antipodes What is more 
likely is that they received them either by correspondence or irom 
collectors returning to Europe. 

Now there is a Mt. King Gtotijo (3,400 ft.) at the head of the Grose 
River neat Katoomba. in the Blue Mountains (N.S.W.). Would it not he 
possible fot the field catlettoc lo write "King George's Mount" against 
his specimen, and a recipient in Britain to misconstrue this as the more 
familiar place name! "King George's Sound"' Such mistakes have 
occurred all too frequently and the possibility" here it heightened by Hie 

160 * W. WAmicrt. Qrctedx us Wiidflm*r Sanuuarlcs [ V y^j *£ L 

fact that F. Si«ber, who collected Hie type of M. hcmjlnchedrs Schwgr. 
t$Wpt, 2, i't. 2, p. 136, T. IftJ, 1H27) <h'<s' visit t>ie Blue Mountains in 1823 
— the Vdy year alfirihuted to llobson's M. i/ivoiutifotium material, More- 
over, although I have noi been able to study the type ol Schwaegrichen's 
stf, hemiincbodes, his description a"d coloured fisurcs accord very well 
with the type specimen' of M. iitvMutifptiiiiru I suggest, therefore, thar 
the two species, ar* identical aluJ were actually based upon the same Siebcr 
tolleclion -cither irom Parramatta or the Blue Mountains. 

Obviously Schwaegriehcn had not seen the Hooker and Grevillc types. 
for lie place* these Mti<*owitr*»nt species in a section "Perhluimo iynolt/" 
(p. 144), notwithstanding the fad that type M. iwnluUfulisun [also a scries 
of neat pencil drawings accompanying it) shows a, distinrt single, peristome 
i)/ short free teeth. Had he examined this type, he would hardly have estab- 
lished his M bonttru bodes ou.pnge 136 of the same volume. Brotherus 
(\*<tiur. Pfiamsnf,, 192$ ed.) assign* inwIniifoHom to the section LtiatKima. 
having double peristome with cohering outer teeth, so it i? doubtful whether 
he, too, had ever consulted the type. 

In conclusion, all available evidence is Dgamst lite probability of either 
ilacromuriutn- iwitnsAjnlhtm or M. invnlulifaliutu laving been collected 
at King George's Sound I therefore advocate the deletion of theie species 
from the Wot Australian list, which will still lack any representative ol 
ortholnchoid or mscromttrioid Mntei. 


Lists of plants in sanctu<sric9 have, often been made in autumn and winter, 
and vary front the probably complete list for Tallarook to n short li5t for lh< 
sanctuary to be made by the Forests Commission near UenifiRO, which gives 
three orchids 

Places where«uarie<; have Seen made or are being made art here 
arranged in an order which probably indicates the ratio of the number of 
orchids on the census to the number in the sanctuary' — Tallarook, Lcngwrmd, 
Nunawading. Warrandytc, Fiankston. Croydon, Mario, Anglesca, Bendigo, 

Jn 7 of the areas (jiVxsfwhVj major; in 6 Eriochilus; in S CaJocJiilut rbbcrt- 
SSnii and Pterotlylis. unions; in 4 1 lielymitra puuajlera^ Microtis imifotm. 
Diuris in<tcuht<i; [» j Thelymitrn anatota, T. antcHmitro, Aot»ithus rtni- 
firmis, Diuris ttmgifnlia; in 2 Dipodimn (Warrandytc and Croydon). 
Prautpkyllum desfpetaw!: ('Vislesca and N'ima wading), Pr. mijriCOIW (Tal- 
larook and Longwood), Thciymitra rubra (Longwood and Nunawading). 
Aciantktu rxserius (Anglcsca and Mario). Lyperanihus mgriearu (Angle- 
sea and Frankston, Pterostylis pcduMufata (Warrandytc and Frankston), 
Coladenio c/Mfittea (J-ongwood and Warrindyte), C. ditatata (Tallarook 
and Warrandytc), Oiun,-; pe.dxneulta (longwood and Croydon) ; in I (T»I- 
Jarook) J htlymilm i.ritiidei; Caladenia au.aitstala, Diuris salphvrea (Long- 
wood) D. paJadnln, CohfdeniC puesillata (Frankston) P*a.*opky)lttm datum; 
i Warrandyte) Cahdema fitz-ftertdti. Picroilyhr curia. PI. barixtta, Pt. punlla; 
(Anglesca) Leptucems, Carybas (?) . (fltndigo) CnWnu'o cdniat; (Mario) 
Thgiyniitm Qrcndiflerd. Carybm ccisuiiiftorns. Chile.jtettis reftcxa. Gfosxadia 
miner, Orthoceras, Lryplesiylis subtflala, C. vrCttra, Peieroslyfis hnyifotia, 
Pt. pedooiossa; (Sydenham) Diurh albs. 

Mr. Hunter expects to add to the Mario census. Elsewhere, cxrept Angle- 
sea and Beiidigo, only likely additions would tie P/f<Mtvlis and T6.?An»if>i?. 

The Nairn; Plains Prisi rv.-<tion S>x:iely of Victoria will wilcome sug- 
gestions which may lead to the tilling in of ccrtnin obvious and sctious omis- 

W, WADOliLL, Secretory. 

The Native Pfaists Preservation Society of Victoria.